Psychology_251_Exam_1_Study_Material-1

Psychology_251_Exam_1_Study_Material-1 - Chapter 1 History,...

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Chapter 1 – History, Method, and Paradigm 1) What is thinking? a) What is high-level (human) thinking? b) What is its function? Why do humans need to think? c) What processes are necessary for thinking? 2) Issue of representation a) Cognitive involves some representational system and the manipulation of such representation b) When you think, you need some way of representing and manipulating objects and concepts 3) Possible levels of analysis a) Sociological level b) Social cognition level c) Behavioral level d) Cognitive level e) Neurological level f) Hormonal level g) Molecular level 4) Thinking properties a) Thinking can exist independently b) Can show quantity without objects c) Can show quality indirectly d) Thoughts can exist independently of a physical system e) Thinking needs some physical realization f) Thoughts need to be implemented by some informational processing machine 5) Difficulty in studying cognition a) Can only study cognition indirectly i) Use of various tasks and examining the responses ii) Use of various tasks and examining brain activity b) Difficulty from the indirect analysis i) Difficulty in determining whether models are correct ii) Multiple ways of implementing processes with the same results 6) History of Psychology – BP or Before Psychology a) Ancient Greece and philosophy b) Aristotle and Plato c) Dark Ages and the religious metaphor d) Renaissance to the 19 th century -- the resurgence of philosophy e) Descartes' mind and body f) British Empiricist and the value of experience and association g) More recent BPs – Weber, Fechner 7) Aristotle
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a) Took the view that the heart was the source of the nervous system b) Came up with his logical system which is still used today c) Emphasized the empirical approach of gathering knowledge d) Knowledge can be discovered by observing nature 8) Plato a) Emphasized the rational way of gathering knowledge b) Knowledge can be discovered by pure reasoning alone 9) Descartes a) Rene Descartes came up with the mind body duality b) Can study the body and the mind c) Mind is separate from the body. Body functions following physical mechanisms 10) British Philosophers a) Proposed empiricism where knowledge is based on experience and evidence (as opposed to innate ideas) b) Took the view that learning is based on association – what is stored is associations c) Locke – coined the term Tabula Rosa or blank slate and the mind came into being through experience and the senses 11) Evolutionists a) Darwin proposed a mechanism for evolution called natural selection b) Characteristics and traits exist because they confer an advantage c) Galton, Darwin’s cousin tried to measure intelligence by measuring physical characteristics – not a good measure, especially with the imprecise measures of his day. 12) More recent experimental BPs
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Psychology_251_Exam_1_Study_Material-1 - Chapter 1 History,...

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