BNF07%20Development

BNF07%20Development - The Vertebrate Nervous System...

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1 z Vertebrate Nervous System A bony vertebral column and a bony skull are characteristic of the vertebrates as compared to invertebrates . Vertebrate nervous systems are dorsal while invertebrates are ventral . Vertebrates have contralateral motor control, invertebrates have ipsilateral motor control. Vertebrates have ipsilateral and contralateral pathways for sensory information, invertebrates have ipsilateral pathways for sensory information. The Vertebrate Nervous System z Vertebrate brain characteristics Cephalization —grouping of neurons into a brain Divisions of brain z Hindbrain z Midbrain z Forebrain More extensive development of the cortex in mammals “What are some advantages to having a well- developed cortex?” The Vertebrate Nervous System
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2 Brains of Several Vertebrate Species Development of the Nervous System: The Human Embryo z Layers of cells in the embryo: Endoderm forms the linings of the body, e.g. lung Mesoderm forms connective tissue, e.g., bones Ectoderm forms the nervous systems as well as the epidermis and parts of the eyes and ears z Throughout the embryonic and fetal period different cell types are created (differentiation ). z Embryonic layers thicken to become: Neural Plate is the name for the thickened ectodermal layer. Neural folds push up to form a space called the neural groove . Neural tube forms from the neural groove in 23 days. The brain and spinal cord develop from it. Structural Development: Formation of Nervous System
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3 z When the neural tube fails to close, a Neural tube defect (NTD) is produced. z One of these is Spina bifida , which may result in paralysis, limb deformities and mental retardation. Many cases of spina bifida can be prevented with supplemental Folic Acid. Structural Development: Formation of Nervous System z Disorders such as anencephaly , spina bifida , and Down Syndrome can be detected by amniocentesis . Structural Development: Formation of Nervous System z Initially differentiates into three vesicles. Prosencephalon or forebrain z Telencephalon (cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and the limbic system) z Diencephalon (epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus) Mesencephalon or midbrain (does not divide) Rhombencephalon or hindbrain z Metencephalon z myelencephalon Structural Development: The Developing Brain
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4 Differentiation of the Brain STAGES OF NEURODEVELOPMENT 1. Neurogenesis 2. Migration 3. Neuronal Differentiation 4. Synaptogenesis 5. Apoptosis 6. Synapse rearrangement 7. Myelination
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2011 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor X during the Spring '11 term at Fairfield.

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BNF07%20Development - The Vertebrate Nervous System...

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