12 Behaviorism

12 Behaviorism - I. INTRODUCTION A. Introduction The Rise...

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1 Lecture 12: The Rise and Fall of Behaviorism I. INTRODUCTION A. Introduction s The Rise and Fall of Behaviorism s It started off slowly in 1910s s Watson’s 1913 manifesto, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It , claimed that introspective psychology was unscientific because it did not deal with objective states. s There is a complete rejectionof mentalism byWatson in the 1910s and Skinner in the 1940s s By the 1940s and 1950s, behaviorism reigned supreme in American experimental psychology. s There was an emphasis on learning and experience over inheritance of traits in every sphere of applied and theoretical psychology. I. INTRODUCTION A. Introduction s The Rise and Fall of Behaviorism s By 1965, the tide began to turn. s There was the “cognitive revolution" and “humanistic psychology” which embraced the very mentalism which Behaviorism sought to reject. s Why behaviorism declined is complicated. s Behaviorism was demonstrated to be overly simplistic and inadequate philosophically and empirically. s Behaviorism no longer theoretically dominant. s But Behavior Modification, Applied Behavior Analysis, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy remain viable approaches in applied psychology. I. INTRODUCTION B. The Context of Behaviorism s The zeitgeist of the time resulted in the developing of behaviorism. s Objective psychology was already established in Russia and several functionalists were discussing openly many ideas later emphasized by John Watson. s The success of animal research also contributed greatly to the development of behaviorism. s The strain resulting proposals for a strict objective science of psychology but the continued use of introspection created the atmosphere that ultimately led to the “behaviorist revolution.”
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2 I. INTRODUCTION B. The Context of Behaviorism s Two sections to the [presentation s Origins of Behaviorism: s Russian Physiology of Reflexes s American Foundations: J.B. Watson s British Foundation: MacDougall s NeoBehaviorism s Edward Chase Tolman s Clark Leonard Hull s Edwin R. Guthrie s B. F. Skinner II. ORIGINS OF BEHAVIORISM A. Russian Physiology of Reflexes s Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov (1829–1905) s Sechenov's major interest was neurophysiology s He showed that brain activity is linked to electric currents and was the first to introduce electrophysiology. s Focused on the nature and inhibition of spinal reflexes s Studying the physiology of reflexes was important port of the context of the founding of behaviorism II. ORIGINS OF BEHAVIORISM A. Russian Physiology of Reflexes s Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov s Sechenov's work laid the foundations for the study of reflexes, animal and human behavior, and neuroscience. s
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2011 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor X during the Spring '11 term at Fairfield.

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12 Behaviorism - I. INTRODUCTION A. Introduction The Rise...

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