Chapter17EarlyAlternativestoPsychoanalysis

Chapter17EarlyAlternativestoPsychoanalysis - Early...

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Early Alternatives to Psychoanalysis Chapter 17
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Three Major Groups of Freudian Descendents l Neo-Freudians who elaborated on Freud: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut l Orthodox Freudians who became dissenters: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Karen Horney l Protesters against both psychoanalysis and behaviorism: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Discussed in next chapter
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Major Changes in Freudian Theory ¢ Expansion of the Concept of the ego l More independent of the id l Has its own energy l Has functions separate from the id l Is free of the conflict produced by id pressures ¢ De-emphasize biological forces ¢ Emphasize social and psychological forces ¢ Minimize the import of infantile sexuality ¢ Minimize the import of the Oedipus complex
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Anna Freud ¢ The youngest of Freud’s six children; not a welcomed child. l she and psychoanalysis were twins who started out life competing for their father’s attention .” ¢ Several of her dreams included in The Interpretation of Dreams ¢ Became her father’s favorite child l Freud could have meaningful discussions with her, her mother felt psychoanalytic ideas were a form of pornography. ¢ Early interest in her father’s work l Attended meetings of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society from the age of 14.
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Anna Freud Ego Psychology ¢ Contrasts with Freud’s focus on the actual instinctual drives. ¢ Highlighted social and environmental effects within the mother-child relationship. ¢ Personality created early in infancy ¢ Most crucial concern in personality development: ability and need of child to establish an independent identity apart from the mother and to develop relationships with other objects (persons).
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Anna Freud Ego Psychology ¢ Developmental Lines : The major adjustments that typify the transition between childhood and adolescence and young adulthood. l From dependency to emotional self-reliance. l From sucking to rational eating. l From wetting and soiling to bowel-bladder control. l From irresponsibility to responsibility in body management. l From egocentricity to companionship. l From play to work. ¢ Believed that these developmental lines complemented her father s psychosexual stages.
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Anna Freud Ego Psychology ¢ The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1930) ¢ Altruistic Surrender : An ego defense mechanism whereby a person avoids personal anxiety by vicariously living the life of another person. ¢ Identification with the Aggressor : An ego defense mechanism whereby the fear caused by a person is reduced by adopting the feared person's values. l Ultimate source of superego development. ¢ Ego Psychology : Psychology that emphasizes the autonomous functions of the ego and minimizes the conflicts among the ego, id, and superego.
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Chapter17EarlyAlternativestoPsychoanalysis - Early...

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