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09_Notes - Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Do I Want to...

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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Do I Want to Do This? Lepper, M. R., & Greene, D. (1975). Turning play into work: Effects of adult surveillance and extrinsic rewards on children’s intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 31 (3), 479-486. doi: 10.1037/h0076484. “Subjects who had undertaken the activity expecting an extrinsic reward showed less subsequent interest in the activity than those who had not expected a reward, and subjects who had been placed under surveillance showed less subsequent interest than those not previously monitored.” “surveillance , the constant or periodic monitoring of a "subordinate's" behavior by a "supervisor" with power or authority over him.” Surveillance might have adverse effects both the supervisor and supervisee [attribution theory (Bern, 1967, 1972; Kelley, 1967, 1973),] o “Strickland (1958) and others (Kipnis, 1972; Kruglanski, 1970) -- an attributional cycle in which surveillance produced distrust of a subordinate's motivations, which in turn produced further surveillance.” o “high-surveillance subordinates as motivated primarily by the surveillance itself, and hence as less internally motivated, less trustworthy, and less likely to perform adequately in the absence of surveillance.” o “self-perception theory (Bern, 1967; 1972) suggests, that a person observes himself engaging in an activity in a situation in which extrinsic pressures to do so are strong and salient, he, like others, attributes his own behavior to the extrinsic pressures in the situation and comes to see himself as lacking any intrinsic interest in the activity” “The results in both studies (Lepper, Greene & Nisbett, 1973; Greene & Lepper) indicated that expectation of a reward while engaging in the activity, relative to the other conditions, significantly undermined the children's intrinsic interest in that activity.” Purposes: (a) replicate previous studies, but with different rewards, (b) examine the effects of adult supervision on kids’ intrinsic motivation. Design: a 3 X 2 design in which surveillance (high-low-no) and expectation of reward (expected- unexpected) were manipulated orthogonally. expected reward: subjects expected to be able to win a chance to play with a highly attractive set of toys by engaging in the activity; unexpected reward: subjects had no knowledge of these toys until they were finished with the activity. Hypothesis: it was predicted that both surveillance and the expectation of an extrinsic reward would decrease the amount of interest children would show in the activity later, in their classrooms, where extrinsic pressures were absent.
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Method – Sample: 80 preschool children, ranging in age from 4 years to S years 3 months (Stanford), children came from predominantly white, middle-class backgrounds, and the sample included 39 males and 41 females.
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