Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Do I Want to Do This?
Lepper, M. R., & Greene, D. (1975). Turning play into work: Effects of adult surveillance
and extrinsic rewards on children’s intrinsic motivation.
Journal of Personality and
(3), 479-486. doi: 10.1037/h0076484.
“Subjects who had undertaken the activity expecting an extrinsic reward showed less subsequent interest
in the activity than those who had not expected a reward, and subjects who had been placed under
surveillance showed less subsequent interest than those not previously monitored.”
, the constant or periodic monitoring of a "subordinate's" behavior by a "supervisor" with
power or authority over him.”
Surveillance might have adverse effects both the supervisor and supervisee [attribution theory
(Bern, 1967, 1972; Kelley, 1967, 1973),]
“Strickland (1958) and others (Kipnis, 1972; Kruglanski, 1970) -- an attributional cycle in
which surveillance produced distrust of a subordinate's motivations, which in turn
produced further surveillance.”
“high-surveillance subordinates as motivated primarily by the surveillance itself, and
hence as less internally motivated, less trustworthy, and less likely to perform adequately
in the absence of surveillance.”
“self-perception theory (Bern, 1967; 1972) suggests, that a person observes himself
engaging in an activity in a situation in which extrinsic pressures to do so are strong and
salient, he, like others, attributes his own behavior to the extrinsic pressures in the
situation and comes to see himself as lacking any intrinsic interest in the activity”
“The results in both studies (Lepper, Greene & Nisbett, 1973; Greene & Lepper) indicated that
expectation of a reward while engaging in the activity, relative to the other conditions,
the children's intrinsic interest in that activity.”
replicate previous studies, but with different rewards,
examine the effects of adult
supervision on kids’ intrinsic motivation.
a 3 X 2 design in which surveillance (high-low-no) and expectation of reward (expected-
unexpected) were manipulated orthogonally.
subjects expected to be able to win a chance to play with a highly attractive
set of toys by engaging in the activity;
subjects had no knowledge of these toys until they were finished with the
it was predicted that both surveillance and the expectation of an extrinsic reward would
decrease the amount of interest children would show in the activity later, in their classrooms, where
extrinsic pressures were absent.