Motivation Chapt1

Motivation Chapt1 - Human Motivation Chapter 1 Themes in...

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Human Motivation Chapter 1 Themes in the Study of Motivation
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What causes behavior? Motivation theorists Assume that for every behavior, there is cause Goal is to identify those causes Tend to be eclectic Want to know what instigates behavior Biology, learning, cognition
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Approach and Avoidant Causes Biological basis for approach/avoidant behavior Individual differences may be a result of inherited amounts of each system Temperament: we approach life with a particular orientation that can affect everything we do and say Dual nature: we are often being pulled in two directions (moves us forward or stops us in our tracks)
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Approach and Avoidant Causes Approach Causes People do things because of something they want, desire, or need Example: People eat because they are hungry. Sometimes the want, desire, or need does not immediately give rise to a specific goal object Avoidant Causes People do things to avoid something Example: People who have anxiety at a party may leave the party. These things are not only aversive/noxious, they are also difficult/impossible to ignore
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Eight Basic Themes of Contemporary Motivation Theories 1. Behavior represents an attempt to adapt to the environment 2. Importance of determining what arouses/energizes behavior 3. Understanding what governs the direction of behavior Need theory: needs are what give direction to behavior Goal theory: goals create a tension, and the individuals move toward the goals to reduce that tension 1. Understand persistence One of the main predictors of success; grows out of intrinsic motivation Reward theory: we are inclined to repeat behaviors that make us feel good (positive reinforcement) and discontinue behaviors that make us feel bad (negative reinforcement)
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2011 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor X during the Spring '11 term at Fairfield.

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Motivation Chapt1 - Human Motivation Chapter 1 Themes in...

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