Study Guide for the Final Exam for Tuesday LectureOperative Cycle: (30 Q)Surgical Procedure Classifications / purposesClassified according to urgency, risk and purpose-Based on UrgencyoElective– preplanned and based on the patient’s choice and availability of scheduling for the patient, surgeon, and facility. Nonurgent procedure that does not have to be done immediately Delay of surgery has no ill effectsPurpose: To remove or repair a body partTo restore functionTo improve healthTo improve self-conceptExample: tonsillectomy, hernia repair, cataract extraction and lens implantation, hemorrhoidectomy, hip prosthesis, scar revision, facelift, mammoplasty. oUrgent (major)– must be done within a reasonably short time frame to preserve health, but is not an emergencyUsually done within 24-48 hoursPurpose: To prevent further tissue damageTo preserve life; trauma repair, control of hemorrhageExample: Removal of gallbladder, coronary artery bypass graft, surgical removal of malignant tumor, colon resection, amputationoEmergency– must be done immediately to preserve life, a body part, or function. Purpose: To prevent further tissue damageTo preserve lifeExample: control of hemorrhage, repair of trauma, perforated ulcer, intestinal obstruction, tracheostomy-Based on Degree of RiskoMajor– May be elective, urgent or emergencyoMay require hospitalization and specialized care, has a higher degree of risk, involves major body organs or life-threatening situations, and has a greater risk for postoperative complications. oPurpose: To preserve lifeTo remove or repair a body partTo restore functionTo improve or maintain health
oExamples: carotid endarterectomy, cholecystectomy, nephrectomy, colostomy, hysterectomy, radical mastectomy, amputation, trauma repair, CABGoMinor– Primarily electiveAlmost always performed in settings such as health care provider’s office, an outpatient clinic, or a same-day, outpatient surgery setting (ambulatory surgery)Surgical procedure usually carries a low risk and results in few complicationsoPurpose: To remove skin lesionsTo correct deformitiesoExample: Teeth extraction; removal of warts, skin biopsy, dilation and curettage, laparoscopy, cataract extraction, arthroscopy-Based on Purpose DiagnosticoTo make or confirm a diagnosisBreast biopsy, laparoscopy, exploratory laparotomyAblativeoTo remove a diseased body partAppendectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy, partial gastrectomy, colon resection, amputationPalliativeoTo relieve or reduce intensity of an illness; is not curativeColostomy, nerve root resection, debridement of necrotic tissue, balloon angioplasties, arthroscopyReconstructiveoTo restore function to traumatize or malfunctioning tissueoTo improve self-conceptScar revision, plastic surgery, skin graft, internal fixation of a fracture, breast reconstruction.