NUR 130 \u2013 Elimination and Fluid & Electrolytes \u2013 Chapter Outlines.docx - NUR 130 \u2013 Elimination and Fluid Electrolytes \u2013 Chapter Outlines BPH

NUR 130 – Elimination and Fluid & Electrolytes – Chapter Outlines.docx

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NUR 130 – Elimination and Fluid & Electrolytes – Chapter Outlines BPH – Smeltzer Chapter 59 (pg. 1752-56, 1762-64, 1771- 78) & ATI Chapters 65 & 66 Assessment of the Male Reproductive System Anatomic and Physiologic Overview Disease of the male reproductive system are usually treated by a urologist. The structures in the male reproductive system include the external male genitalia (consisting of the testes, epididymis, scrotum, and penis), the internal male genitalia (consisting of the vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, and prostatic and membranous sections of the urethra, seminal vesicles, and certain accessory glands). The testes have a dual function: spermatogenesis and secretion of the male sex hormone testosterone, which induces and preserves the male sex characteristics. The testes are found in the embryo, within the abdominal cavity near the kidney. During the last month of fetal life, they descend posterior to the peritoneum and pierce the abdominal wall groin. If the peritoneal process remains open into the abdominal cavity, a potential sac remains into which abdominal contents may enter for form an indirect inguinal hernia. The penis is the organ for both copulation and urination. It consists of the glans penis, the body, and the root. The glans penis is the soft, rounded portion at the distal end of the penis. The urethra opens at the tip of the glans. The body of the penis is composed of erectile tissues containing numerous blood vessels that become dilated, leading to an erection during sexual excitement. The urethra, which passes through the penis, extends from the bladder through the prostate to the distal end of the penis. The prostate gland, lying just below the beck of the bladder, is composed of four zones and four lobes. It surrounds the urethra and is traversed by the ejaculatory duct, a continuation of the vas deferens. This gland produces a secretion that is chemically and physiologically suitable to the needs of the spermatozoa in their passage from the testes. Cowper glands lie below the prostate, within the posterior aspect of the urethra. This gland empties its secretions into the urethra during ejaculation, providing lubrication. Gerontologic Considerations As men age, the prostate gland enlarges; prostate secretion decreases; the scrotum hangs lower; the testes decrease in weight, atrophy, and become softer; and pubic hair becomes sparser and stiffer. Changes in gonadal function include a decline in plasma testosterone levels and reduce production of progesterone. Libido and potency often decrease. Vascular problems cause about half of the cases of impotence. Male reproductive capability is maintained with advancing age. Although degenerative changes occur in the seminiferous tubules and sperm production decrease, spermatogenesis continues, allowing men to produce viable sperm throughout their lives. Male hypogonadism starts gradually at about 50 years of age, resulting in decreased testosterone production. The older man notices that the sexual response slows,
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