Wireless IN - Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) Definition...

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Unformatted text preview: Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) Definition Wireless intelligent network (WIN) is a concept being developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) Standards Committee TR45.2. The charter of this committee is to drive intelligent network (IN) capabilities, based on interim standard (IS)–41, into wireless networks. IS–41 is a standard currently being embraced by wireless providers because it facilitates roaming. Basing WIN standards on this protocol enables a graceful evolution to an IN without making current network infrastructure obsolete. Overview In the 1980s, it was considered a novelty to see someone walking down the street and talking on a wireless phone. The connections were not great, but consumers were thrilled with this new capability. Today, it is more unusual when someone does not have a cellular phone. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be 69.8 million wireless customers in the United States, about half of whom will be subscribing to digital services. Wireless customers will no longer settle for static- filled voice connections. They want multiple services that allow them to handle or select incoming calls in a variety of ways. Enhanced services are very important to the wireless customer. They have come to expect, for instance, services such as caller ID and voice messaging bundled in the package when they buy and activate a cellular or PCS phone. Enhanced services will entice potential customers and drive up airtime through increased usage of personal communications services (PCS) or cellular services. As the wireless market becomes increasingly competitive, rapid deployment of enhanced services becomes critical to a successful wireless strategy. IN solutions have revolutionized wireline networks. Rapid creation and deployment of services has become the hallmark of a wireline network based on IN concepts. The WIN will bring those same successful strategies into the wireless networks. The evolution to a WIN concept of service deployment delivers the following advantages, similar to the IN benefits being reaped by wireline providers: • multivendor product offerings that foster competition • uniform services to subscribers across service areas • efficient network utilization • rapid service creation and deployment Topics 1. Unique Service Requirements of Wireless 2. Examples of WIN Services 3. Functional Components of a WIN 4. A Stand-Alone HLR: The First Step in a WIN Strategy 5. The Current Status of WIN Standards Self-Test Correct Answers Glossary 1. Unique Service Requirements of Wireless Roaming Mobility dictates a need for technology or standards that make it possible for different networks to talk to each other. Subscribers want to be able to use the same voice-activated services that they use in their home city when they travel to Phoenix. They also want the service to work in the same way. Roaming is one of the factors driving the WIN standards now being developed. Customers can roam out of their local calling area or out of their service provider's area. Both of these situations require messaging data before the call is even put through to handle the setup, authorization, and proper billing for roaming services. All of these IN services require signaling system 7 (SS7) messages to be sent back and forth between various devices. In nonintelligent applications, calls are simply routed, connected, and then disconnected. Wireless applications require additional SS7 messages to make the service work. Intelligent networking is required for various validations and billing reciprocation of wireless calls. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 2/17 Carrier Select When customers make a wireline call they have no option as to their providers, but the wireless world is different. Wireless providers are making agreements with one another. There are options because of business partnerships and because many carriers have licenses in many different markets. Carrier-select services can benefit both the provider and the subscriber. They allow providers to select, based on codes or automatic handset selection, the network that will be used to complete the call. This way, a carrier can secure calls with its business partners. For example, customers from Dallas roam to Chicago. When those customers travel (if they keep the same frequency band of the Dallas carrier) and make a call, it would normally be routed to the carrier's competitor— not its partner—in that area. However, with carrier select, the mode of a provider's phone could go out and automatically select the correct carrier. These services also allow subscribers the choice of programming new, sophisticated handsets to route calls selectively, which could save them money if they know different network rates. As this is a convenience for the subscriber, carriers will offer these services as well. Whether for providers or subscribers, carrier-select services require IN messaging. Hands-Free Operation Hands-free wireless services are the most sought-after services for safety-minded customers today. They need features such as voice-activated dialing and feature activation, which require special technology that converts voice into data. By speaking "call mom" or "5551212," a call can be completed without physically dialing. The network will migrate to using intelligent networking to route the call to the intelligent-peripheral devices that provide the special technology, such as voice recognition, that is necessary for hands-free, voice-controlled services. To get the message or voice signals routed to the devices that collect that information and translate it to data information requires special routing or intelligent networking. In a non–IN application, after the connection is made, the device or intelligent peripheral (IP) is connected to the call the entire time, even though the technology is only required for the dialing sequence. An IN application sends the message to the device, turns it on, translates the digits, removes it from the telephone circuit, and lets the call go on. As a result, an IN application is a more efficient utilization of IP facilities. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 3/17 Fee Structure Calls are being handed off among networks. After the call is handled properly, billing takes place. IN flags can be written right into the call record so that billing reflects the specific call handling. With so many different agreements, carriers may have negotiated different fee structures with each partner. Using an IN flag in the billing record makes processing fees between carriers much easier. Wireless companies have always paid wireline companies for handling calls that terminate outside the wireless network—a majority of the calls. Money has always gone one way. As a result of the Telecommunications Act 0f 1996, billing can go both ways. Wireless companies can now get paid for calls coming into the wireless network. These changes make billing relationships more complex and will increase the need for IN flags. Providers also will offer services such as calling party pays to make it easier for a wireless subscriber to receive calls at no charge. Again, these types of services drive a need for more centralized WIN capabilities. Data-Service Capabilities Handset displays allow customers to use various messaging services. One, called short message service (SMS), works much like a pager. It allows phones to send and receive messages in addition to making or taking telephone calls. SMS requires many SS7 messages just to set up the signaling and the mechanism to get the data through the wireless network. It requires a significant amount of checks and balances, finding the database, pulling up the message, encapsulating it with the right header information to route it to the correct user, and finally sending it out like a phone call. It may even go out over a data channel so that the user can receive a message while making a voice call at the same time. This gets complex and requires IN routing and authentication. 2. Examples of WIN Services Enhanced services are increasing in popularity. At this point, various carriers within different serving areas are implementing them using available IN protocols and concepts. As WIN standards are implemented, the same enhanced services will be applicable across serving areas so that wireless users will have a more consistent interface for seamless use while roaming. These WIN standards, which are under development, will make wireless services really successful. Enhanced services are now limited in scope and are not transparent across networks. With standards in place, more wireless carriers will offer more of these services. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 4/17 Hands-Free, Voice-Controlled Services Voice-controlled services employ voice-recognition technology to allow the wireless user to control features and services using spoken commands, names, and numbers. There are two main types of automatic speech recognition (ASR). Speaker-dependent requires specific spoken phrases unique to an individual user. Each user is required to train the ASR system by recording samples of each specific phrase. The other is speaker-independent ASR, which requires the use of specific spoken phrases that are independent of the speaker. The individual user need not train the system. Voice-Controlled Dialing (VCD) VCD allows a subscriber to originate calls by dialing digits using spoken commands instead of the keypad. VCD may be used during call origination or during the call itself. Voice-Controlled Feature Control (VCFC) VCFC permits a calling party to call a special VCFC directory number, identify the calling party as an authorized subscriber with a mobile directory number and personal identification number (PIN), and specify feature operations via one or more feature-control strings. This service is similar to remote feature control (RFC) except that the subscriber is allowed to dial feature-control digits or commands using spoken words and phrases instead of keypad digits. Voice-Based User Identification (VUI) VUI permits a subscriber to place restrictions on access to services by using VUI to validate the identity of the speaker. VUI employs a form of ASR technology to validate the identity of the speaker rather than determine what was said by the speaker. VUI requires that the subscriber register the service by training the ASR system by recording a word or phrase. When a user attempts to access a service, the ASR system prompts the user to say the special phrase. Incoming Call-Restriction/Control Incoming calls to a subscriber may be given one of the following termination treatments: the call is terminated normally to the subscriber with normal or distinctive alerting; it is forwarded to voice mail or to another number; it is routed to a subscriber-specific announcement; or it is blocked. These kinds of services help subscribers control incoming calls and their monthly airtime bills. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 5/17 From a marketing standpoint, they entice cost-conscious customers who might not want unlimited access from callers. Calling Name Presentation (CNAP) CNAP provides the name identification of the calling party (e.g., personal name, company name, restricted, not available) to the called subscriber. The calling name information (CNA) is derived from the calling number information (CNI), which is generally provided to the terminating network as part of the basic call setup. Optionally, the date and time of the call may be provided to the called subscriber. Password Call Acceptance (PCA) PCA is a call-screening feature that allows a subscriber to limit incoming calls to only those calling parties who are able to provide a valid password (a series of digits). Calls from parties who cannot provide a valid password will be given call refusal while PCA is active. Selective Call Acceptance (SCA) SCA is a call-screening service that allows a subscriber to receive incoming calls only from parties whose calling party numbers (CPNs) are in an SCA screening list. Calls without a CPN will be given call-refusal treatment while SCA is active. Data Capability Short Message Service (SMS) SMS provides the ability to deliver short messages as a packet of data between two service users, known as short message entities (SMEs). SMS incorporated into PCS networks allows for simultaneous paging and voice. Among its applications are paging via wireless phone screens and voice-mail notification. Speech-to-Text Conversion (STC) STC permits a calling party to create a short alphanumeric message by speaking to an ASR device that will perform speech-to-text conversion. The short message may then be distributed by any means available such as short message delivery. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 6/17 Billing, Prepaid Cellular Prepaid cellular can take a number of forms. One might be a debit card; one might be a connection to a smart card. These services allow customers to pay before they call and not be billed later. As the subscriber has already paid for the service, the carrier is not burdened with the risk or overhead of payment collection. 3. Functional Components of a WIN The WIN mirrors the wireline IN mode. But the distinction between the wireless and wireline network is that many of the wireless call activities are associated with movement, not just the actual phone call. In the WIN, more call-associated pieces of information are communicated between the MSC and the SCP or HLR. The WIN moves service control away from the MSC and up to a higher element in the network, usually the SCP (see Figure 1). Figure 1. Components of a WIN • MSC as service switching point (SSP)—In the IN, the SSP is the switching function portion of the network. The mobile switching center (MSC) provides this function in the WIN. • service control point (SCP)—This device provides a centralized element in the network that controls service delivery to subscribers. High-level services can be moved away from the MSC and controlled at Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 7/17 this higher level in the network. It is cost-effective because the MSC becomes more efficient, does not waste cycles processing new services, and simplifies new service development. • intelligent peripheral (IP)—The IP gets information directly from the subscriber, be it credit-card information, a PIN, or voice-activated information. The peripheral gets information, translates it to data, and hands it off to another element in the network—like the SCP—for analysis and control. • signal transfer point (STP)—This is a packet switch in the signaling network that handles distribution of control signals between different elements in the network such as MSCs and HLRs or MSCs and SCPs. The advantage of an STP is that it concentrates link traffic for the network. It can also provide advanced address capabilities such as global title translation and gateway screening. • location registers—These are used to supplement MSCs with information about the subscriber. The number of subscribers that the switch supports changes as roamers move in and subscribers move to other switches. The database of active subscribers changes very dynamically. Each MSC cannot have the database for all potential users of that switch. The following location registers help to get around that problem: • • • visitor location register (VLR)—Within an MSC there is a VLR that maintains the subscriber information for visitors or roamers to that MSC. Every MSC or group of MSCs will have a VLR. home location register (HLR)—Information on roamers is obtained from that subscriber's HLR. Each subscriber is associated with a single HLR, which retains the subscriber's record. When the subscriber roams to another switch, the VLR queries the subscriber's home HLR to get information about that subscriber. When a phone call goes to a subscriber's MSC, the MSC recognizes that the subscriber is roaming and asks the HLR for the subscriber's location. The HLR will communicate that information to the VLR and relay a temporary location number received from the visited system. In the WIN architecture, the HLR is usually a network element such as an SCP. WIN call model—The WIN call model enables the network to handle new triggers (which are decision points in a call) and new transaction capability application part (TCAP) messages. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 8/17 The evolution to WIN will be a major step forward for North American wireless networks. It involves an industry-wide consensus among equipment vendors and service providers to incorporate IN concepts into existing wireless networks. The following steps will need to occur before WIN will be a reality • incorporation of SCP, IP, and SN into the wireless network architecture • evolution of the MSC to a SSP • separation of call control and transport from service control • development of generic call models, events, and trigger points 4. A Stand-Alone HLR: The First Step in a WIN Strategy As subscriber bases grow and technology changes, networks can be expanded easily and cost-effectively with a stand-alone HLR. When a provider migrates to a stand-alone HLR, taking it off the MSC and putting it on an IN network node, the MSC can be dedicated to efficient call processing (see Figure 2). The complexity of the network is then significantly reduced. Figure 2. A Stand-Alone HLR There are two reasons for making the HLR a network element: • MSCs are switches containing a certain amount of processing power. An HLR performs computation, not switching. When the HLR is taken out of the MSC to be a network entity, more processing power is freed up in the MSC for telephone calls—its primary function. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 9/17 • To provision an MSC with subscribers (if each one has its own built-in HLR), it is necessary to put the data in each one, and each one has a different look and feel. With a unified HLR platform, there is only one provisioning mechanism for the HLR database with a standard protocol. Moving to a stand-alone HLR is the first step in a WIN services strategy. Implementing an IN strategy today makes sense, even if roaming standards are not ubiquitous. When IN architecture is implemented, the network is automatically set up for interoperability with other services and other networks as the WIN standards come into play. There are several other advantages of IN–based centralized service control, including the following: • reduced delivery time for services • reduced costs for service deployment • flexibility that makes elements such as fraud control and specialized services more easily deployed • reduced network component costs As the HLR becomes a separate element in the network, it starts to look more like an SCP. The SCP and HLR functions merge, and an SCP/HLR in the network (like DSC's HLR) is the next logical step (see Figure 3). Figure 3. An SCP/HLR Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 10/17 5. The Current Status of WIN Standards The movement to develop a WIN strategy was originally triggered by wireless network operators under the auspices of the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA). They developed a set of requirements calling for industry standards that defined new network architecture incorporating the service flexibility of INs with the mobility aspects of wireless networks. The task of developing the associated standards was taken up by the same committee responsible for IS–41. The WIN standards, which are based on IS–41, were balloted by the end of 1997. WIN will be on its way to completion when IS– 41 standards are put into place and all providers begin to use IS41 protocol. IS–41 includes information in three phases: first, what the network should look like; second, how the equipment should interact; and third, what the network should do and how it should analyze the information. IS–53A is a complementary document to IS–41. IS–53A describes each of the services from the user's perspective and describes what the network does. IS–53A also addresses every potential problem about the way services may interact. Suppose, for example, a caller has do not disturb but also has unconditional call forwarding. IS–53A defines these service interactions. The first three services that will be addressed by the committee are as follows: • calling-name presentation and restriction • incoming-call screening • voice-control services When the HLR was internal to the MSC, it did not have to follow the IS–41 standard. But when, as has been happening over the last four or five years, the HLR is taken out of the MSC/VLR and moved onto the network, it must follow IS–41. As a result, the stand-alone HLR can be viewed as the initial implementation of IN architecture. Many MSCs in wireless networks have already deployed enhanced services. However, to ensure success in a competitive, multinetwork environment, these services will eventually migrate to an IS–41 implementation. IS–41 allows providers to deploy new features with the same user interface because the standards will dictate that all vendors provide a compatible product. IS–41 also will allow a provider's customer to roam or move to a different switch; its implementation will allow for seamless service in the provider's entire service area, independent of the equipment manufacturer. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 11/17 Self-Test 1. IS–41 is a standard currently being embraced by wireless providers because it encourages __________. a. increased network capabilities b. paging c. roaming d. all of the above e. none of the above 2. The components that make up a wireless network can be divided into which of the following groups of categories? a. analog and digital b. subscriber equipment, cell sites, and network equipment c. PCS, GSM, and cellular 3. Data service capabilities require an increase in __________. a. SS7 signaling b. IN routing c. IN authentication d. all of the above e. none of the above 4. __________ are two main types of automatic speech recognition. a. Voice-controlled dialing and voice-controlled feature control b. Speaker-dependent and speaker-independent c. SMS and speech-to-text conversion 5. SMS will allow subscribers to use the phone for paging or voice but not both at the same time. a. true Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 12/17 b. false 6. An intelligent peripheral gets information, translates it to data, and hands it off to another element in the network for analysis and control. a. true b. false 7. Moving high-level services away from the MSC is beneficial because __________. a. MSC becomes more efficient b. it simplifies service deployment c. it frees processing power in the MSC d. all of the above 8. Implementing __________ is the first step in implementing a WIN strategy. a. MSC b. stand-alone STP c. stand-alone HLR 9. __________ is the network protocol that ensures that elements on the hardware platform talk to each other in the same way for seamless service. a. IS–41 b. IS–53A c. TR45.2 10. IS–53A describes each of the enhanced services and describes what the network does. It does not address service interactions. a. true b. false Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 13/17 Correct Answers 1. IS–41 is a standard currently being embraced by wireless providers because it encourages __________. a. increased network capabilities b. paging c. roaming d. all of the above e. none of the above See Definition. 2. The components that make up a wireless network can be divided into which of the following groups of categories? a. analog and digital b. subscriber equipment, cell sites, and network equipment c. PCS, GSM, and cellular See Topic 3. 3. Data service capabilities require an increase in __________. a. SS7 signaling b. IN routing c. IN authentication d. all of the above e. none of the above See Topic 1. 4. __________ are two main types of automatic speech recognition. a. Voice-controlled dialing and voice-controlled feature control b. Speaker-dependent and speaker-independent Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 14/17 c. SMS and speech-to-text conversion See Topic 2. 5. SMS will allow subscribers to use the phone for paging or voice but not both at the same time. a. true b. false See Topic 2. 6. An intelligent peripheral gets information, translates it to data, and hands it off to another element in the network for analysis and control. a. true b. false See Topic 3. 7. Moving high-level services away from the MSC is beneficial because __________. a. MSC becomes more efficient b. it simplifies service deployment c. it frees processing power in the MSC d. all of the above See Topic 4. 8. Implementing __________ is the first step in implementing a WIN strategy. a. MSC b. stand-alone STP c. stand-alone HLR See Topic 4. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 15/17 9. __________ is the network protocol that ensures that elements on the hardware platform talk to each other in the same way for seamless service. a. IS–41 b. IS–53A c. TR45.2 See Topic 5. 10. IS–53A describes each of the enhanced services and describes what the network does. It does not address service interactions. a. true b. false See Topic 1. Glossary ASR automatic speech recognition CNAP calling name presentation CTIA Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association HLR home location register IN intelligent network IP intelligent peripheral MSC mobile services switching center PCA password call acceptance Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 16/17 PCS personal communications services SCA selective call acceptance SCP service control point SMS short message service SS7 signaling system 7 STC speech-to-text conversion TIA Telecommunications Industry Association VCD voice-controlled dialing VCFC voice-controlled feature control VLR visitor location register VUI voice-based user identification WIN wireless intelligent network Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 17/17 ...
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