5newthermo0_10

5newthermo0_10 - Chemical Thermodynamics Introduction,...

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Chemical Thermodynamics Introduction, Zeroth Law, and First Law Dr. Allison J. Long Chapter 1: Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics Chapter 2: Heat, Work, Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and the First Law of Thermodynamics
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Read Chapter 1 and familiarize yourself with the terms. Macroscopic scale/variables Microscopic scale System Surroundings Open system Closed system Isolated systems Boundary Wall Rigid Movable Permeable Nonpermeable Equilibrium Thermodynamic equilibrium Thermal equilibrium Adiabatic Diathermal Zeroth law of thermodynamics Equation of state Intensive variable Extensive variable Partial pressure Mole fraction
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P 1 P 2 V 1 V 2 Two systems are initially not in contact, each at its own internal equilibrium. (Sampling at any small volume, the properties are the same within experimental error.)
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P 1 P 2 V 2 V 1 Now bring them into contact through a rigid, impermeable wall. Two possibilities: 1. The systems will influence each other. If so, the wall must also be diathermic. 2. The systems do not influence each other. The wall must also be adiabatic or the systems are already in states corresponding to thermal equilibrium.
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Thermal Equilibrium: In contact through a rigid, impermeable, diathermic wall with no change in macroscopic properties with time. I II III If I and II are in thermal equilibrium and II and III are in thermal equilibrium, then I and III are in thermal equilibrium.
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If each of two systems is separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they will be found to be in thermal equilibrium with each other. A taken-for-granted idea at first, but a VERY important concept in thermodynamics. Don’t use the T-word!
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If two systems are in thermal equilibrium regardless of their similarities or differences, they have a numerical value of at least one property in common– that property we call temperature. Having the same temperature is the Result of being in thermal equilibrium! THERMOMETER: a system with a rigid, impermeable, diathermic wall with at least one property which changes conveniently rapidly and monatomically with temperature in the range of interest.
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Surroundings System Energy Interchanges We find that the sum of all the energy interchanges is a constant for a given initial and final state of the system. Two types of energy interchanges: (1) heat flow (2) work flow
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place between system and surroundings during a change of state due to a temperature change and flows from a region of increased T to a region of decreased T. 1. Heat flow appears only at the boundary. 2. Heat flow appears only during a change of state. 3. Heat flow is manifested by an effect in the surroundings. 4. The quantity of heat = # of grams of water changed 1 o C. 5. Heat flow is an algebraic quantity.
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5newthermo0_10 - Chemical Thermodynamics Introduction,...

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