chapter_22 - CHAPTER 22 SOLUTIONS AND MINI-PROJECT NOTES...

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CHAPTER 22 SOLUTIONS AND MINI-PROJECT NOTES CHAPTER 22 REJECTING CHANCE — TESTING HYPOTHESES IN RESEARCH EXERCISE SOLUTIONS 22.1 Null : Mothers who smoke have the same average level of education as those who do not smoke. Alternative : Mothers who smoke do not have the same average level of education as those who do not smoke. 22.2 If there were no difference in average education level for the two populations (mothers who smoke while pregnant and those who do no), we would expect to see a sample difference as large or larger than the one we saw in about 1% of all samples of this size. 22.3 a. Null : Calcium does not have an impact on the severity of premenstrual symptoms. Alternative : Calcium reduces the severity of premenstrual symptoms. b. Type 1, concluding calcium has an impact when it does not. c. The consequence of a type 1 is that some women may take calcium because they have been told it would reduce premenstrual symptoms, but in fact it doesn't. The consequence of a type 2 error is that women are told calcium is not effective in reducing premenstrual symptoms, and thus do not take it, when in fact it would help. 22.4 a. Null : The calcium and placebo-treated participants came from populations with equally severe PMS mood swings. Alternative : The calcium and placebo-treated participants came from populations with PMS mood swings of different severity. Conclusion : The null hypothesis is not rejected, we cannot conclude that the two sets of participants come from different populations. b. Null : At the third cycle after treatment with calcium and treatment with placebo, mood swings would be equally severe among women similar to those in this study. Alternative : At the third cycle after treatment with calcium, mood swings would be less severe than after similar treatment with a placebo. Conclusion : Reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative, treatment with calcium significantly reduces mood swings when compared to treatment with a placebo. c. Null : At the third cycle after treatment with calcium and treatment with placebo, insomnia would be equally severe among women similar to those in this study. Alternative : At the third cycle after treatment with calcium, insomnia would be less severe than after similar treatment with a placebo. Conclusion : Do not reject the null hypothesis, treatment with calcium does not significantly reduce insomnia when compared to treatment with a placebo. 22.5 a. Null : Psychotherapy and desipramine are equally effective in treating cocaine use. Alternative : One method is more effective than the other. b.
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2011 for the course STAT 100 at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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chapter_22 - CHAPTER 22 SOLUTIONS AND MINI-PROJECT NOTES...

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