Lecture 06 - - Understanding Operating Systems Sixth...

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Understanding Operating Systems Sixth Edition Chapter 6 Concurrent Processes
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Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to describe: The critical difference between processes and processors, and their connection The differences among common configurations of multiprocessing systems The significance of a critical region in process synchronization The basic concepts of process synchronization software: test-and-set, WAIT and SIGNAL, and semaphores 2
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Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition Learning Objectives (cont'd.) The need for process cooperation when several processes work together How several processors, executing a single job, cooperate The similarities and differences between processes and threads The significance of concurrent programming languages and their applications 3
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Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition What Is Parallel Processing? Parallel processing , one form of multiprocessing , is a situation in which two or more processors operate in unison. Two or more CPUs are executing instructions simultaneously. The Processor Manager has to coordinate the activity of each processor as well as synchronize cooperative interaction among the CPUs. 4
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Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition What Is Parallel Processing? (cont'd.) There are two primary benefits to parallel processing systems: Increased reliability The availability of more than one CPU; If one processor fails, then the others can continue to operate and absorb the load. Not simple to implement The failing processor must inform the other processors to take over. The OS must restructure its resource allocation strategies so the remaining processors don’t become overloaded. 5
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Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition What Is Parallel Processing? (cont'd.) There are two primary benefits to parallel processing systems: Faster processing The increased processing speed is often achieved because sometimes Instructions can be processed in parallel, two or more at a time in one of several ways: Some systems allocate a CPU to each program or job; Others allocate a CPU to each working set or parts of it; Others subdivide individual instructions so that each subdivision can be processed simultaneously. » Concurrent programming. 6
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What Is Parallel Processing? (cont'd.) Increased flexibility brings increased complexity. Two major challenges remain: How to connect the processors into configurations; How to orchestrating processor interaction, which applies to multiple interacting processes as well. 7
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Lecture 06 - - Understanding Operating Systems Sixth...

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