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ENG_122_Back_Matter - Abbreviations Commonly Found in...

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Abbreviations Commonly Found in Academic Research Below is a list of abbreviations you may encounter in scholarly journals or other documents in your aca- demic research. Many of these abbreviations are not used in APA style; however, some are required in APA reference models. Abbreviation Meaning abbr. abbreviated, abbreviation abr. abridged AD; A.D. From Latin anno Domini meaning “in the year of the Lord”; used to indicate years numbered from the supposed year of the birth of Christ. Precedes the number with no space between letters (e.g., AD 640 or A.D. 640) ad loc. From Latin ad locum meaning “at the place” anon. anonymous app. appendix arr. arranged, arranger art.; arts. article; articles b. born BC; B.C. before Christ; in some publications, the abbreviation BCE (before the common era) is used instead of BC; follows number with no space between letters (e.g., 640 BC or 640 B.C.) bibl. From Latin bibliotheca meaning “library” bibliog. bibliography, bibliographer, bibliographical biog. biography bk. (bks.) book (books) c. copyright c. or ca. From Latin circa meaning “around”; usually used when the exact date is not known (e.g., The Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun ruled c. 1333 B.C.) cf. compare; APA uses cf. only to contrast; to compare like things, use “see” or “see also” ch. (chaps.) chapter (chapters) col. column or colored (used to describe illustrations in the text) colloq. colloquial, colloquially, colloquialism
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Abbreviation Meaning comp. compiled by con. contra, against cont. continued copr. copyright d. died diss. dissertation ed. edition Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors) e.g., From Latin exempli gratia meaning “for example”; always put a comma after enl. enlarged; used when material has been added to a previous edition esp. especially (e.g., pp. 210–215, esp. 212) et al. From Latin et alii meaning “and others”; use only if there are two additional people because it is a plural phrase etc. From Latin et cetera meaning “and so forth” et seq. From Latin et sequens meaning “and the following” f.; ff. Following; a single “f” indicates that one page follows; the designation “ff” indicates that more than one page follows e.g., (p. 6f.; pp.90ff.) fig. figure fn. footnote front. frontispiece (an illustration opposite the title page) ibid. From Latin ibidem meaning “in the same place”; used to refer to the work cited immediately preceding; not used in APA style i.e., From Latin id est meaning “that is”: used to give specific clarification; always put a comma after illus. illustration, illustrator, illustrated by infra. below; similar to the phrase “See below”; refers to the portion of text that follows intro. introduction l. (ll.) line (lines) loc. cit. From Latin loco citato meaning “in the place cited”; used for a second but nonconsecutive reference to the exact materials; page numbers never follow loc. cit. because they are unnecessary (e.g., Jones, loc.
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