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ENG_122_Ch_6 - TetraImages/photolibrary 6 Break long...

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6 Writing the Research Paper In this chapter, we examine the final phase of the research process: integrating the information you have compiled into a well-written college research paper. We examine the characteristics of an effective research paper and discuss the two most common types of research papers you will be asked to prepare in your college courses: analytical research papers and argumentative research papers. We also explain the types of intermediate assignments you may prepare to help you develop your research paper in a step-by-step manner. Break long projects into parts. Then assemble the pieces into something whole. —Roy Peter Clark (2006) Writer and senior scholar at the Poynter Institute © TetraImages/photolibrary
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Author Anne Lamott’s book about writing, Bird by Bird , got its title from an incident involving her brother when he was ten years old. The boy had to write a school paper about birds and was overwhelmed by the huge task in front of him. Their father put his arm around his son and said, “Bird by bird, buddy. Just take it bird by bird” (Clark, 2006). Research papers are projects we must take “bird by bird,” or step by step. Previous chapters in this text have provided you with background information on formal academic research, the language and methods of scientific and scholarly research, and information about research sources and how to search for them. In Chapter 3, we discussed the tasks you must perform in the first two phases of the research process: the discovery phase and the assessment phase. In this chapter, we examine the final phase of the research process: the integration phase. You might want to refer to Figure 3.1, “Three Phases of the Research Process,” as we discuss the tasks you will perform in this final phase. Later in this chapter, we discuss the ENG 122 research paper and the specific information you must include in each section of that paper. 6.1 The Final Phase of the Research Process The integration phase, the final phase of the research process, occurs after you have selected and narrowed your topic; formulated your research question or hypothesis; gathered information and data related to your topic; interpreted, analyzed, and evaluated that information and data; and formed some conclusions. Now you are ready to present your research, in written form, in a formal research paper. Remember the jigsaw puzzle analogy we used in Chapter 3? The integration phase is the point at which you will sort the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle that you have collected and put them together to form a clear picture for your readers. Below are the tasks you will perform in the integration phase of your research project. Planning the Paper As we stated in Chapter 2, your research paper must have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.
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