01-Unit1 - Computer Architecture Unit 1 Unit 1 Computer...

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Computer Architecture Unit – 1 Advanced Computer Architecture Page No. 1 Unit 1 Computer Architecture Structure 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Evolution and Interpretation of concept of computer architecture 1.2 Parallel/Vector Computers 1.3 Development Layers 1.4 New Challenges 1.5 Concrete architectures of computer system 1.6 Abstract architecture of processors 1.7 Summary 1.8 Exercise 1.0 Introduction Computers have gone through two major stages of development mechanical and electrical. Parallelism in architecture is one such change. It appears in various forms. Such as lookahead, pipelining, rectorization, concurrency, distributed computing at different processing lovels. The evolution of all these techniques are briefly explained in this unit. 1.1 Evolution and Interpretation of concept of Computer Architecture The study of computer architecture involves both hardware organization and programming/software requirements. As seen by an assembly language programmer, computer architecture is abstracted by its instruction set, which includes opcode (operation codes), addressing modes, registers, virtual memory, etc. From the hardware implementation point of view, the abstract machine is organized with CPUs, caches, buses, microcode, pipelines, physical memory,
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Computer Architecture Unit – 1 Advanced Computer Architecture Page No. 2 etc. Therefore, the study of architecture covers both instruction-set architectures and machine implementation organizations. Over the past four decades, computer architecture has gone through evolutional rather than revolutional changes. Sustaining features are those that were proven performance deliverers. As depicted in Fig. 1.1, we started with the von Neumann architecture built as a sequential machine executing scalar data. The sequential computer was improved from bit-serial to word-parallel operations, and from fixed-point to floating- point operations. The von Neumann architecture is slow due to sequential execution of instructions in programs. Figure 1.1 Tree showing architectural evolution from sequential scalar computers to vector processors and parallel computers
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Computer Architecture Unit – 1 Advanced Computer Architecture Page No. 3 Evolution and interpretation of the concept computer architecture, Although the concept of computer architecture is unquestionably one of the basic concepts in Informatics, at present there is no general agreement about its definition or interpretation. In the following, we first describe how this important concept has co evolved. Then, we state our definition and interpretation. Evolution of the concept As far as the evolution of the concept of computer architecture is concerned, there are four major steps to be emphasized, which will be overviewed as follows. The term
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course CSE 103 taught by Professor Sdfgh during the Spring '11 term at Burlington CC.

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01-Unit1 - Computer Architecture Unit 1 Unit 1 Computer...

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