02-Unit2 - Pipelining Unit 2 Unit 2 Pipelining 2.0...

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Pipelining Unit – 2 Advanced Computer Architecture Page No. 9 Unit – 2 Pipelining 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Introduction to pipelining 2.2 What is Pipelining 2.3 Principles of linear Pipelining 2.4 Basic Performance Issuses in pipelining 2.5 The Major hurdle of pipelining 2.5.1 Structural hazards 2.5.2 Data Hazards 2.5.3 Control Hazards 2.6 Summary 2.7 Exercise 2.1 Introduction Pipelining offers an economical way to realize temporal parallelism in digital computers. The concept of pipeline processing in a computer is similar to assembly lines in an industrial plan. To achieve pipelining, one must subdivide the input task (process) into a sequence of subtasks, each of which can be executed by a specialized hardware stage that operates concurrently with other stages in the pipeline. Successive tasks are streamed into the pipe and get executed in an over-lapped fashion at the subtask level. The subdivision of labor in assembly lines has contributed to the success of mass production in modern industry. By the same token, pipeline processing has led to the tremendous improvement of system throughput in the modern digital computer. In this section, a sample design of a floating-point adder is used to illustrate the concept of linear pipelining. Basic properties and speedup of a linear-pipeline processor are characterized. Various types of pipeline processors are then classified according to pipelining levels and functional configurations.
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Pipelining Unit – 2 Advanced Computer Architecture Page No. 10 2. 2 What Is Pipelining? Pipelining is an implementation technique whereby multiple instructions are overlapped in execution. Today, pipelining is the key implementation technique used to make fast CPUs. A pipeline is like an assembly line. In an automobile assembly line, there are many steps, each contributing something to the construction of the car. Each step operates in parallel with the other steps, though on a different car. In a computer pipeline, each step in the pipeline completes a part of an instruction. Like the assembly line, different steps are completing different parts of different instructions in parallel. Each of these steps is called a pipe stage or a pipe segment. The stages are connected one to the next to form a pipe-instructions enter at one end, progress through the stages, and exit at the other end, just as cars would in an assembly line. In an automobile assembly line, throughput is defined as the number of cars per hour and is determined by how often a completed car exits the assembly line. Likewise, the throughput of an instruction pipeline is determined by how often an instruction exits the pipeline. Because the pipe stages are hooked together, all the stages must be ready to proceed at the same time, just as we would require in an assembly line. The time required between moving an instruction one step down the pipeline is a machine cycle. Because all stages proceed at the same time, the length of a machine cycle is determined by the time required for the
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02-Unit2 - Pipelining Unit 2 Unit 2 Pipelining 2.0...

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