211Kelleher Study Questions exam 1

211Kelleher Study Questions exam 1 - Biology 211 Study...

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Kevin Kelleher, MTC 1 Biology 211 Study Questions Exam 1 Chapter 16: The Endocrine System Hormone Chemistry 1. What are the 2 basic classes of hormones, & what are the molecules they are based on (precursor molecules)? 2. What is a second messenger system? How does this differ from the direct gene activation used by steroid hormones? What are the 2 second messenger systems used by hormones (& which molecules are the second messengers)? 3. How can a cell regulate its response to circulating hormones? 4. How does the body regulate hormone activity (distinguish between humoral, neural, & hormonal stimuli (positive regulation) and feedback inhibition (negative regulation))? Major Endocrine Organs The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) 5. Where is the hypophysis located? Which 2 structures make up the neurohypophysis? What type of tissue is present in each lobe? 6. What hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary? Where are these hormones produced? 7. What is the hypophyseal portal system? How is it used to regulate the release of hormones synthesized in the anterior pituitary? 8. List the hormones synthesized by cells of the anterior pituitary. What are the gonadotropins? 9. What might be the effects of long-term homeostatic imbalance (oversecretion or undersecretion) of growth hormone? 10. What general mechanisms are often involved in hypersecretion (oversecretion) and hyposecretion (undersecretion) of hormones? 11. What types of molecules can lead to a reduction in Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release? What are the effects of very high blood levels of ADH? The Thyroid Gland 12. Where is the thyroid gland located? 13. Where is thyroid hormone produced within the gland? What are the 2 forms of thyroid hormone? Which one predominates? 14. What are the target organs of thyroid hormone? 15. Where is calcitonin produced within the gland? What are its target cells & function? 16. What are some effects of hyposecretion & hypersecretion of thyroid hormone? The Parathyroid Glands 17. How does parathyroid hormone act to increase calcium levels in the blood (what types of cells does it target)?
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Kevin Kelleher, MTC 2 The Adrenal Glands 18. The adrenal cortex secretes 3 general forms of corticosteroids. In which cortical zone is each corticosteroid group produced? 19. Give an example of a positive and negative mechanism regulating release of the primary mineralocorticoid aldosterone. 20. What are some of the effects of excessive levels of glucocorticoids? 21. Distinguish between the effects of gonadocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex and steroidal sex hormones produced by the gonads. 22. What subdivision of the autonomic nervous system regulates release of catecholamines produced by the adrenal medulla? The Pancreas
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course SCIENCE Bio 211 taught by Professor Dr.frederickduss during the Spring '11 term at Midlands Tech.

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211Kelleher Study Questions exam 1 - Biology 211 Study...

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