Practice Test From Previous Semesterdr. Frederick Duss Exam 2

Practice Test From Previous Semesterdr. Frederick Duss Exam 2

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–21. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 16
Background image of page 17

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 18
Background image of page 19

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 20
Background image of page 21
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Matching Questions FigUre_18.1 " 1)‘ Purkinje fibers. " 2) SA node. - 3)‘.AV bundle. 4) AV' node. 5) Bundle branches. Figure 18.2 ' . . Using Figure 18.2 on previous page match 6): Atrial depolarization. - ; 7) Point after which pressure begins to, rise in the aorta. 8) Point of the least ventricular volume. ' 9)'Point that represents the "dup" sound made by the'heart. . ~ Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr. Dani Frederick-Duus Figure 18.3 Match ‘ I _ ' . _ . -- 10) Ventricular fibrillation. ' 11) Second—degree heart block. 12) Junctional rhythm. ‘ 13) NOrmal sinus rhythm. Match the fol/ow' ' 1Wheart. -. 15) Heart muscle 16) Serous layer covering the heart muscle. 17) The outermost layer of the serOus pericardiUm. A) Epicardium _, . ’ - I ' ' ' B) Parietal layer C) Endocardium' D) Myocardium ~ ' 18) The pacemaker of the heart. . 19) Found in the interventricular septum. v . 9 20) Network found in the ventricular mycocardium. - ‘ - 621) The point in the condution system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed. A) SA Node ' B) Purkinje fibers C) AV node D) AV bundle . F 22) Prevents backflow into the left ventricle. » 23) Prevents backflow into the right atrium.v-4 24) Prevents backflow into the left atrium-m 25) Prevents backflow into the ventricles. 26) AV valve with two flaps. 27) AV valve with three flaps. A) Mitral valve» B) Tricuspid valve C) Aortic valve D) Pulmonary valves ‘ V " - Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr. Dani Frederick-Duus True/False Questions " ' y _ . 1) The myocardium receives its blood supply from the'coronary arteries. . ; v g 2) Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria and depends less on a continual supply of Oxygen than does skeletal [QUE ‘ ~ ' 'muscle. » y . - , y . . - -- . 3) Proper function of the heart is dependent upon blood levels of ionic sodium. ’ _ 3 4) Congestive heart failure means that the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that 7‘ there is '- . . . _ ' - . 4 _ - . ' 21?..5 . , I, f, inadequate delivery of blood to body tissues; V V . 5) Tissues damaged by myocardial infarction are replaced by connective tissue. _ '6.) The left side of the heart pumps the 'same volume of blood as the right. - . 7)-'Chronic release of excess thyroxine can cause a sustained increase in heart rate and a . ' I, weakened heart. -8) The mitral valve has chordae but the tricuspid valve does not. 9) Trabeculae carneae are found in the ventricles and never the atria. 10) The "lub" sounds of the heart are valuable in diagnosis because they provide information about the function ' ofthe heart's pulmonary and aortic valves. 1 V 11) Autonomic regulation of heart rate is via two reflex centers found in the pons. 12) The dicroticnotch refers to the brief rise .in preSSu’re caUsed by the closure of the AV valves V ' V during ' . - . V . ,. . " ’13) An ECG provides direct informatiOn abOut valve function. r _ A .514) As pressure in the aorta rises due to atherosclerosis, more ventricular pressure is required to open the aortic ‘ ' 1 ' " ‘ ’ .yalve. v A . _ » . . . 1'5) Proxysmal atrial tachycardia ischaracterized by bursts of atrial contractions with little pause a between them. N ‘ > v - ' W , Multiple-Choice Questions I , ‘1) Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events? A) excitation of the SA node B) closure of the heart valves , C) friction of blood against the chamber' walls D) contraction of ventricular muscle c‘2) Cardiac reserve . . A A) is determined by your genes and not'subject to improvement ’ ' _, B) is unrelated to health _ . ' C) can be improved by regular exercise D) can be determined by auscultation . t 4 V 3) Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes . I ' A) a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output , ‘ / ' B) a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output ' C) no change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate ' D) no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration _ , 4) The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to A) accommodate a greater volume of blood B) expand the thoracic cage during diastole C) pump blood with greater pressure D) pump blood through a smaller valve , : Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr.VDani Frederick-Duus x 5) Damage to the is referred‘to as heart block. ' * A) SA node » 7 ' B) AV valves C) AV bundle D) AV node 6) The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates A) ventricular repolarization B) ventricular depolarization C) atrial repolarization D) atrial depolarization 7) Blood within the’pulmonaryv'eins retums to'the A) right atrium B) left atrium C) right ventricle D) left'Ventricle 18) The pericardial cavity . A) is another name for the chambers of the heart * . B) is a space between the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium C) is the region of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart D) contains a lubricating fluid called serous fluid -. V 19) if the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as‘it is for skeletal muscle - - - -' cells . ' , . _ v A) it would be much longer before Cardiac cells could respond to a second stimUlation B) contractions would last as long as the refractory period ‘ . ' C) tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action D) it would be less than 1-2 ms ‘ I u 20) Norepinephrine acts on heart muscle cells by A) decreasing heart contractility B) causing a decrease in stroke volume.' C) blocking the action of calcium " . D) causing threshold to be reached more quickly 21) If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that A) the heart would stop, since the vagal nerves trigger the heart to contract B) the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute C) the AV node would beCome the pacemaker of the heart , D) parasympathetic stimulation would increase, causing a decrease in heart rate 22) Foramen ovale . » ' A) connects the two atria in the fetal heart B) is a condition in which the heart valves do not completely close C) is a shallow depresSion in the interventricular septum ' " ‘ - . D) is a connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta. in the fetus 23) The stroke volume for a normal resting heart is ml/beat. A) 30 ' ’ ' B) 50 C) 70 D) 90 Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr. Dani Frederick-Duus 24) Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole? , . A) venae cavae v B) pulmonary artery C) aorta D) pulmonary veins 25) Blood enters which of these vessels during ventricular systole? A) aorta ’ B) pulmonary arteries C) pulmonary vein D) aorta and pulmonary trunk V » . 26) Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart? >A)AVriode 1' - _ "' ‘ ' B) bundle of His » C) AV valve D) SA node 27) The tricuspid valve is closed A) while the ventricle is in diastole B) when the ventricle is in systole C) while the atrium is contracting ~ ' . D) by the movement of blood from atrium to ventricle ,- " , ' r . 28) When holding a dissected heart in your hands, it is easy to orient the right and left side by 9 A) tracing out where the vena cava enters the heart B) noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls C) locating the aorta . V . D) finding the pulmonary valves g ' -, ' Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr. Dani Frederick—Duus 29) Select the correct statement about the heart valves. A) The mitral valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. B) The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle. C) Aortic and pulmonary valves control the flow of blood into the heart. ' ._ I . g D) The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that they do not blow back up intothe atria v .. , . ' , . 9 during ventricular contraction. - _ ' ' y '. " ' 30) Select the correct statement about the function of myocardial cells. A) The all—or-none law as applied to cardiac muscle means that the entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all. . . . B) Cardiac muscle cells are each innervated by a sympathetic nerve ending so that the nervous system ‘ ’ ‘ can increase heart rate. . _ ‘ I I . _ a C) The refractory period in skeletal muScle is much longer than that in cardiac muscle. 1 _ . D) The influx of potassium ions from extracellular sources is th'ei'nitiating event in cardiac muscle , contraction. - ’ 1 7 g, i I -'- - a ' ' V ' ‘ " 31) Select the correct statement about the structure of the heart-wall. A) The fibrous skeleton forms the bulk of the heart. - , ' ‘ ‘ _ B) Connective tissue in the heart wall aids in the conduction of the action potential. C) The heart chambers are lined by the endomysium. , I ’ D) The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts. . 32) Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle . . A) has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium . B) lacks striations » C) has more nuclei per cell _ D) cells are larger than skeletal muscle cells. 33) Cardiac muscle . ' A) has fewer mitochondria than skeletal muscle B) relies mostly on glycolysis fOr energy C) has sarcomeres with A band-s and l bands D) can operate for long periods without oxygen as long as lactic acid is present 34) The deflection waves in an ECG tracing include . A) the P wave, which is present only in patients who have had a heart attack B) the Q—T interval, which indicates the time of atrial contraction C) the PQRS complex, which follows ventricularcontraction D) the T.wave,_ which indicates ventricular repolarization ' ' 35) During the period of ventriCUlar filling" ' 7" ' . ' “ .A) pressure in the heart is at its peak. ” t ’ . ' v V B) blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves C) the atria remain in diastole ' D) it is represented by the P wave on the ECG . ' , 36) The effect of endurance—type athletic training may be to lower the resting heart rate. This phenomenon A) is a sign of dangerous overexertion V l B) is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle C) results in decreased cardiac output ' ‘ ' D) does not occur in aerobic training . , ' ~ -- . -. , g = ' 37). The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle? A) isovolumetric relaxation ' ' - ' B) isovolumetric contraction ' C) ventricular ejection D) ventricular filling I Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr. Dani Frederick—Duus 38) The time of day mOSt hazardous for heart attacks is ' ' . A) morning ' ' - B) noontime C) evening V . V D) during sleep v v r . I . . v 39) If a significant amount of connective tissue were to develop connecting the visceral and parietal pericardial layers together, which of the following would be a likely consequence? A) interference with normal mechanical cardiac activity B) strengthening of the delicate pericardial layers and an improvement of cardiac function C) decreased production of fluid in the pericardial c'avity since it is no longer necessary D) decreased friction between the visceral and parietal layers ' , . ., ‘ ’40) if we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that . ~ sodium influx is ;;- ' ' " '7 ' ' - . ‘ V » ’ - ‘ more rapid. V . v -. A - . _ . 7-, A) heart rate would increase due to a decreased time for depolarization cf the pacemaker cells . B) slow calcium channels in the pacemaker tissue would be' cycling at a greater rate ' ' _' C) heart rate would decrease, but blood pressure would rise due to the' excess sodium preSent D) tetanic contraction would occur due to the short absolute refractory period of cardiac muscle 41) Select the correct statement about cardiac output. A) A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction. B) Decreased venous return will result in increased end diastolic volume. . C) If a semilunar valve were partially obstructed, the end systolic'volume in the affected ventricle would be - ’ A v ’ ' ‘ decreased. ‘ y D) Stroke volume increases if end diastolic volume'decreases. 42) During contraction of heart muscle cells . A) the action potential is initiated by voltage—regulated slow calcium channels B) some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of I I ' - ' calcium from intracellular stOres - . I - C) the action potential is prevented from spreading from cell to cell by gap junctions D) calcium is prevented from entering cardiac fibers that have been stimulated 43) lsovolumetric contraction: ' . > '> . .' , ‘ . - A) refers to the short period during ventriCular systole when the ventricles are completely closed _ - chambers - ~ B) occurs while the AV valves are open - . ‘ C) occurs immediately after the aortic and pulmonary valves close D) occurs only in people with heart valve defects 44) Commotio cordis is heart failure due to a A) mild electrical shock B) severe electrical shock C) relatively mild blow to the chest D) loss of blood, . . 45) Negative chronotropic factors are factors that A) decrease afterload - B) increase afterload C) decrease heart rate D) increase heart rate , * - ‘ . ~ Fill-in-th‘e-Blank/Short Answer Questions ' ' , _ _ r - . 1) The enlarged coronary vessel outside the heart that empties-blood into the right atrium is-the _ . 2) in the fetal heart there is a foramen that allows blood to'flow from the right atrium directly to the left atrium. ‘ . - Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr. Dani Frederick—DuUs _ _ 3) The cells of the heart do not maintain stable resting membrane potentials; therefore, they ‘ continually depolarize. 4) Specialized conductive cells of the ventricles are called fibers. 5) The ECG T wave interval represents 6) CO = X 'SV. 7) The membrane covers the heart. 8) The valve of the heart has three valves with chordae tendineae. 9) The 7 and valves of the heart have no chordae tendineae attached.- 10) Define systole and diastole. Which heart chambers are usually referenced when these'ter'ms ' are used? '» , . . , . . 11) Define the terms end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systdlic volume (ESV) and‘relate them to the -‘ - - ' calculation of stroke volume. r V I -- I ' ‘ 12) What is the difference between-theauricles and the atrium? , . . _ 13) The heart is called a "double pump" because there are twofunctionally separate circulations. Trace the " ' ' ' '~ - v ‘ - ' pathway of each of these circulations and include the following information: heart chambers involved, major _ . . blood vessels involved, and general areas through which the blood flows. Begin with the right atrium. . ' 14) What two important functions does the cardiac conduction system perform? 15) Explain autorhythmicity in cardiac muscle cells. _ g 16) Why is oxygen so much more critical to the heart muscle than to skeletal muscles? . 17) What is the functional importance of the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle? What is the - functional ' t _ ' v ’ ' - ‘ » - importance of the fibrous skeleton of the heart? ~ 18) What is bradycardia? ., 19) Why is fibrosis of the cardiac muscle serious? ‘ 5 . 20) Would an ECG with an inverted QRS wave be of concern to the doctor? Clinical Questions . - _ 1) A 14—year-old girl undergoing a physical examination prior to being admitted to-summe’r camp ' was found to I ' . have a loud heart murmur at the second intercostal space to the left side of the sternum. Explain the reason I for the loud heart murmur associated with this girl's condition. 2) A man enters the hospital complaining of chest pain. His history includes smoking, a stressful job, a diet - ~ _ heavy in saturated fats, lack of exercise, and high blood presSure. Although he is not suffering from a heart ' ' . > 7 ' ' - r _ attack, his doctor explains to him that a heart attack is quite possible. What did the chest pain indicate? Why . " ; ~- r - ' " is this man a prime candidate for arheart attack? ' _ ~ 3) An older woman complains of shortness of breath and intermittent fainting spells. Her doctor runs various _ - _ ' . ' _ tests and finds that the AV nOde is not functioning properly. What is the suggested treatment? ’4) During a physical exam a child complained of frequent breathlessness. An angiocardiogram ' was performed , ' . , , . __' . , l r. ' and it was found that he had a patent'ductus arteriosus..Discuss the location and function Of the ductus' .- t v ‘ " .- - ' *‘ arteriosus in the fetus and relate it to the reason for the boy's breathlessness. 5) A patient takes a nitroglycerin tablet sublingual for chestpain. NitrOglycerinacts directly'on-r ‘ smooth muscle, v > ' I » ’ ' ' ' " ' Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr. Dani Frederick—Duus producing relaxation and vessel dilation. How would this relieve chest pain? ‘ g . 6) A patient was admitted to the hospital with heart failure. On admission, his pulse was 110 and blood . , ' - pressure was 96/64. According to his history, his normal pulse rate is usually between 80 and 88 and his blood pressure runs from 120/70 - 130/80. Based on this assessment data, is the cardiac‘output highor ' " ‘. " ‘V ' ' low? Explain why. ' 7 . '. - I ~ V . _ 7) A 55—year—old male was admitted tothe hospital with heart failure. Hecomplains of increasing 'shortness of ‘ I A V _ breath on exertion and needing to sleep on three pillows at night. On‘physical assessment, the nurse , ~ - . - determines that his ankles and feet are Very swollen. Which of these symptomsreflect left—Sided heart failure . ' ‘ . ' » and which reflect right—sided heart failure? y A 8) Asystole is the total absence of-ventricular electrical activity. Explain why defibrillation would not be effective in this situation. 9) A patient is prescribed a calcium channel blocker to prevent angina (chest pain), by decreasing the demand for » oxygen. Explain why. Chapter 18 The Heart Practice Test Dr. Dani Frederick—Duus Bio 211 A & P H Respiratory Practice Exam. Dr.Dani Frederick—Duus 1 Matching Questions Left lung Diaphragm Figure 22.1 ' r ‘ Using Figure 22.1, match the following: 1) Main (primary) bronchus. 2) Pharynx. 3) Larynx. 4) Carina of trachea. 5) Trachea. 6000 y 3000 § Milliliters (ml) 2000 1 000 0 Figure 22.2 » fiUsing Figure 22. 2, match the following: 6) Tidal volume. 7) Inspiratory reserve volume. 8) Residual volume. 9) EXpiratory reserve volume. 10) Air that dOes not participate in the exchange ofgases. 'Bi0211A&PII Match the following: 11) No echange of gases occurshere. 12) Secrete a fluid containing surfactant. Respiratory Practice Exam, Dr.Dani Frederick-Duus. 2 A) Type i Cells B) Respiratory _ bronchioles 13) Where the respiratory zone of the lung begins. ' V . C) Type II cells 14) Composed of simple squamous epithelium. ' ' . ’ D) Alveolar duct 15) Terminates in alveoli. 16) Composed of cuboidal cells. 17) and E) segmental ' bronchi I - The respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membrane of the capillary walls True/False QuestiOns 1) The roof of the nasal cavity is formed by parts of the frontal bone. 2) The Olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal ’Cavity contains the receptors for the Sense of smell. - 3) The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbUlence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air. I V - .- . - ‘ _ ' _‘ ' I 4) Paranasal sinuses seem to have no useful function. 5) The pleura is a thin, single—layered serosa that divides into parietal and visceral pleura. 6) lntrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli. 7) During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with .each breath. 8) The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.» 9) In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is‘decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis ofthe mucosal lining of the bronchial tree. _ -~ ~ I- ' > ’ 10) Labored breathing is termed dyspnea. 11) The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream, in the form of carbonic anhydrase. 12) Each lung has an indention, the pelvis, through which blood vessels enter and leave the lung. 13) Increased temperature results in decreased 02 unloading from'hemoglobin. . 14) The ~epiglottis is a smooth muscle that covers the glottis during swallowing. 15) The events of Valsalva's maneuver‘inClude closing off the larynx by muscle action (i.e., the rising of the intra— abdominal pressure causing holding of the air in the lower respiratory tract). 16) Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia. I I 17) Tracheal obstruction is life threatening. g . 18) The paired lungs are located in the m'ediastinum. 19). The parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall. V 26) The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs. Bio 211 A & P ll Respiratory Practice Exam Dr.DaniFrederick—DuUs 3 21) .Atelectasis (lung collapse) renders the lung. useless for ventilation. - 22) The Hering—Breuer reflex is a potentially dangerous response thatmay cause overinflation of the lung : 23) Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the . hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers. 24) As carbon dioxide enters systemic blood, it causes more oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin (the Haldane effect), which in turn allows more C02 to combine with hemoglobin and more bicarbonate ion to be generated (the Bohr effect). . 25) Dalton‘s law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases isthe sum of the pressures exerted _ independently by each gas in the mixture. ' ' ' 26) Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic. 27) Nasal conchae mainly work on inhalation to warm and moisten air. They serve minor functions for exhalation. ‘ , . . ; - , - , 28) Under certain conditions, the vocal folds act as a‘sphincter that prevents air passage. 1 29) Apneustic breathing is characterized by prolonged inspirations Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the A) trachea B) pharynx C) larynx D) carina .2) The loudness of a person's VOice depends On A) the thickness of vestibular folds ‘ B) the length of the vocal folds " C) the strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles D) the force with which air rushes across the vocal folds 3) The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The' function of type II. is A) to secrete surfactant B) to trap dust and other debris C) to replace mucus in the alveoli ‘ g ‘ D) to protect the lungs from bacterial invasion 4) After the segmental (tertiary) bronchus, the next smaller branch of the respiratory passageway is (are) the A) terminal bronchioles B) atrium C) alveolar ducts D) respiratory brdnchiole 5) The smallest macrOSCOpic subdivisiOn of the lung is the ‘ A) lobule ‘ ‘ - ' B) pleura C) primary bronchiole D) extrinsic ligament Bio 211 A & P H Respiratory Practice Exam Dr.Dani Frederick—Duus 4 6) The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because A) they contain cilia that protect the lungs B) they control the volume of the lungs C) they maintain the proper temperature of the lungs during sleep D) they produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing I ' 7) lntrapulmonary pressure is the . A) pressure within the pleural cavity ' B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs C) negative pressure in the intrapleural space _ _ D) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure 8) The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ' A) Boyle's law ' ' ‘ B) Henry's law C) Charles' law D) Dalton's law 9) The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the'sum of the individUal partial preSSures of , gases in the mixture" paraphrases ‘ A) Henry's law B) Boyle's law C) Dalton's law D) Charles' law 10) Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ‘ .. A) humidifying the air before it enters _ _. ' B) warming the air before it enters . V ‘ . s ., i - . , C) interfering with the cohesiveness of Water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tensionvof alveolar fluid , I D) protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other enVironmental variatiOns I ‘V V 11) For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be A) at least 3 micrometers thick ' B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick C) between 5 and 6 micrometers thick - , . D) The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange 12) With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because ' ., A) a decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond B) a decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin—oxygen bond , C) an increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond D) an increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin—oxygen bond 13) The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is A) loss of oxygen in tissues B) increase of carbon dioxide C) pH (acidosis) D) pH (alkalosis) 14) Nerve impulses from will result in inspiration. A) the dorsal respiratory group B) the chemoreceptor center C) Broca's center 'D) the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus Bio 211 A & P ll . Respiratory Practice Exam Dr.Dani Frederick—Duus 5 15) in the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ~ . ' ' = ~ - A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form B) about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin C) greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin D) not present except where it is combined with carrier molecule. 16) Which of the following statements is incorrect? A) During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid. B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants. C) Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing. D) The chest wall becomes more rigid with age“ " 17) Another name for the inflation reflex is A) Bohr B) Haldane C) Hering—Breuer D) pulmonary irritant 18) Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated? A) psychic stimuli ‘ , ‘ B) decrease in lactic acid levels ' C) proprioceptors D) simultaneous cortical motor activation'of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center 19) Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer? I A) adenocarcinoma ‘ - B) Kaposi's sarcoma ' C) small cell carcinoma D) squamous cell carcinoma I 20) Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body' with 02 and dispose of/COZ? ‘ A) pulmonary ventilation ' ' - "' B) blood pH adjustment C) internal respiration D) external respiration 21) Which of the following changes occurs as the conducting tubes of the lungs become smaller? A) Cartilage rings are gradually replaced by regular plates of cartilage. " B) Resistance to air flow decreases due to the increased number of tubes. C) Smooth muscle amount increases. . i . , _ - _ D) Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated colUmnar to simplesquamous epithelium which lines the: ~ alveoli. v ‘ > » ' I ' - > ’ 1 ' 22) Which of the following does not diminish lung compliance? ' A) factors that block the bronchi ‘ . B) factors that impair the flexibility of the thoracic cage C) factors that reduce the natural resilience of the lungs D) factors that decrease the surface tension of the fluid film of the alveoli 23) Tidal volume is air . A) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration B) exchanged during normal breathing C) inhaled after normal inspiration D) forcibly expelled after normal expiration 24) The ideal'vitalcapacity of an individual is around A) 1200 ‘ml ‘ B) 3100 ml C) 4800 ml D) 6600 ml Bio 211 A & P H Respiratory Practice Exam, 6 25) Possible causes of hypoxia include ' A) too little oxygen in the atmosphere B) obstruction of the esophagus C) taking several rapid deep breaths D) getting very cold Dr.Dani Frederick-Duus 26) The lung volume that represents the tota A) tidal volume B) vital capacity C) inspiratory capacity D) expiratory reserve volume | volume of exchangeable air is the . 27) Since the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange? A) Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus. B) Respiratory exchanges are not necessary. v C) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta. V . _ D) Since the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exChange. 28) Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?) ‘ .A) rising carbon dioxide levels ' B) rising blood pressure , C) arterial P02 below 60 mm Hg D) arterial pH resulting from C02 retention 29) Respiratory control centers are located in the A) midbrain and medulla B) medulla and pons C) pens and midbrain D) upper spinal cord and medulla 30) The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called, A) reserve air B) expiratory reserve C) inspiratory capacity D) vital capacity 31) Which statement about C02 is incorrect? A) Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation. B) Its accumulation in the blood is associated witha decrease in pH. C) More 002 dissolves in the blood'plasma thanis carried inthe RBCs. D) C02 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood. . V 32) Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by A) osmosis B) diffusion C) filtration D) active transport 33) Select the correct statement about the pharynx. A) The adenoids are located in the laryngopharynx. B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx. - C) The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx.‘ _ D) The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the 'nasopharynx. Bio 211 A & P ll Respiratory Practice Exam Dr.Dani Frederick-Duus 7 34) The larynx contains . A) the thyroid cartilage ’ B) a cricoid cartilage also called the Adam's apple C) an upper pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds D) lateral cartilage ridges called false vocal folds 35) Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon? _ 'A) diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax- B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract C) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax D) diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax 36) The oropharynx does not include A) fauces ' B) palatine tonsils C) lingual tonsils D) pharyngeal tonsils 37) Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung? _ A) middle lobe ' - B) cardiac notch C) horizontal fissure D) oblique fissure 38) Impairments of oxygen transport include . A) anemic hypoxia, usually caused by congestive heart failure B) carbon monoxide poisoning, a form of hypoxemic hypoxia C) stagnant hypoxia, due to a functional problem with the lungs D) hypoxemic hypoxia, resulting from a decrease in levels of functional red blood cells 39) Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of 002 transport? A) 20% of C02 is dissolved directly into the plasma. B) 7-8% of C02 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin. 3 C) The chloride shift mechanism enhances C02 transport. D) Carbonic anhydrase is responsible for bonding C02 to hemoglobin. 40) Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathingvinclude A) thalamic control . ' B) voluntary cortical control ' C) stretch receptors in the alveoli D) composition of alveolar gas 41) Which of the following provide the greatest surfaCe area for gas exchange? A) alveolar sacs I ' ' B) alveoli C) respiratory bronchioles D) alveolar ducts 42) The respiratory membrane is a combination of A) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes C) atria and alveolar sacs ' . ' D) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs 43) A gas emboli may occur because A) a person holds his breath too long B) a diver holds his breath upon ascent C) a pilot holds her breath upon descent D) a person breathes pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber Bio 211 .A & P ll ' - Respiratory Practice Exam ' Dr.Dani Frederick—Duus 8 44) lnspiratory capacity is . - ' v . ' A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration B) the total amount of exchangeable air C) functional residual capacity 2 D) air inspired after a tidal inhalation 45) Which center is located in the pons? A) pontine respirator group (PRG) B) expiratory C) inspiratory D) pacemaker neuron center 46) The nose serves all the following functions except A) as a‘ passageway for air movement ' B) as the initiator of the cough reflex C) warming and 'humidifying the air D) cleansing the air 47) A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system'is developed enough for survival by ' x - ' A) 17 weeks B) 24 weeks C) 28 weeks D) 36 weeks 48) Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn? A) The respiratory rate of a newborn is slow. ' B) The respiratory rate of a newborn varies between male and female infants. 1 C) The respiratory rate of a newborn is approximately 30 respirations per minute. . . _ D) The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40—80 respirations per'minute. 49) Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control. . » V_ A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth tranSition from inspirationto expiration. B) The ventral respiratory group (expiratory center) neurons depolarize in a rhythmic way to establish the pattern of breathing. ~ g V t g u C) The pontine respirator group (PRG) continuously stimulates the medulla to provide inspiratory drive. D) The dorsal respiratory group (inspiratory center) is contained within the pons. 50) Which of the following statements is correct? A) H+ acts directly on central chemoreceptors to decrease the rate and depth of breathing. B) Low arterial pH is the most powerful stimulator of respiration. ' - ' C) Arterial pH does not affect central chemoreCeptors directly. D) Hfhas little effect on the blood pH. 51) The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are A) the smooth muscles of the lung V ' B) the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone C) the visceral pleurae and the changing volume 'of the lungs _ .» D) surface tension from pleural fluid, negative pressure, and atmospheric pressure 'on the thorax ' ' 52) The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a highaltitude because A) the temperature is lower at higher altitudes ' , * - ' ' ‘ ' B) the basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes ' 1 ’ . V . , C) the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes 7 - D) the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmbspheric pressure is lower at high altitudes . 1;? Bio 211 A & P ll I Respiratory Practice Exam Dr.Dani Frederick—Duus 9 53) Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach'the lungs because of the A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose B) abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa C) porous structure of turbinate bones D) action of the epiglottis 54) Which of the following is not possible? -. . A) Gas flow equals pressure gradient oVer resistance. B) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance. C) Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow. - . , . . D) The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in- pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli. V - 55) Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation. A) A decrease in compliance causes an increase in ventilation.) .g B) A lung that is less elastic will require 'lessvmuscle action to perform adequate ventilation. ,_ C) As alveolar surface tension increases, additiOnalmuscle action'will be required. D) Surfactant helps increase alveolar surface tension. ‘ - 56) Select the correct statement about oxygen transpOrtin blood' ‘: . 1' . ,. _ - .- V . A) During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs contains one molecule of 02 B) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently C) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen—carrying capacity D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal 57') Which of these is not a characteristic of emphysema? A) bronchial edema, ‘ B) destruction of alveolar walls . V r C) loss of lung elasticity D) air trapping Fill-in-the-BlankIShort Answer Questions ’ I ' 1) Type II alveolar cells secrete 2) law is called the law of partial pressure. 3) law would apply to the amount :of 002 "you could dissolve in a Pepsi.- 4) Oxygen unloading in a RBC due to declining pH is called the 5) The center of the pons exerts mainly inhibitory effects on breathing rates. 6) ~ is the most common lethal genetic disease in the United States. 7) The cartilaginous flap that closes the trachea during swallowing is called the 8) The archway in the back of the throat is called the. 9) The trachea is lined with epithelium. 10) Terminal bronchioles are lined with g ' epithelium. p 11) How is alveolar gas exchange affected by emphysema and pneumonia’.7 12) Briefly differentiate between atmospheric‘pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, and intrapleural pressure. Which Of these is always negative in a healthy individual? What happens if intra'pleural pressurebecomes equal to atmospheric pressure? , - » - . ‘ t » -. - . . ~ - Bio 211 A & P ll Respiratory Practice Exam Dr.Dani Frederick-Duus 10 13) The contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins inspiration. Explain exactly what happens, in terms of volume and pressure changes in the lungs, when these muscles contract. 14) What is the chloride shift and why does it occur? 15) if a baby is born at '28 weeks' gestation, what major problem will the doctors look for? 16) How is it possible to change the pitch of our voice from high to low? 17) The partial pressure gradient for oxygen (in the body) is much'steeper than that for carbon.dioxide.'Explain how equal amounts of these two gases can be exchanged (in a given time interval) in the lungs and at the tissues. ' 18) Define anatomical dead space. What isthe relationship between anatomical and alveolar dead space? Which value is likely to increase during lung pathology? ’ ' ‘ 1 ~‘ ' Clinical Questions 1) Timothy has been having difficulty breathing since he had pneumonia last month. Recently he had severe ‘ pain in his ,chest and back, and his breathing was extremely irregular. The doctor at the emergency room told him that one of the lobes of his lung hadfcollapsed. How could this happen? - ' 2) While having a physical examination, a young male informed his doctor that at age 8 he had lobar pneumonia and pleurisy in his-left lung. The physician decided to measure hisVC. Describe the apparatus and method used for taking this measurement. Define the folloWing terms used in the description of lung volumes: TV, lRV, ERV, RV, and V0. - ‘ v 3) Jane had been suffering through a severe cold and was complaining of a frontal headache and a dull, aching pain at the side of her face, What regions are likely to become sites‘ of secondary infection following nasal infection? ‘ - t 4) A smoker Sees his doctor because he has a persistent cough and is Short of‘breath after verylittle exertion. What diagnosis will the doctor make and what can the person expect if he does not quit smoking? 5) After a long scuba diving sessiOn on a Caribbean reef, Carl boards a plane to Dallas. He begins‘to feel pain in his elbow on the flight back to Dallas. What is happening to him? 6) A patient was admitted to the hospital with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. His PaOz was 55 and PaCOz was 65. A new resident orders 54% oxygen via the venturi mask. One hour after the Oxygen was placed, the nurse finds the patient with no respiration or pulse. She calls for a Code Blue and begins cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Explain why the patient stopped breathing. .. ' - 7) While dining out in a restaurant a man suddenly chokes on a piece of. meat. The waitress is also astudent , _ . ‘nurSe and Comes to the man's aid. She asks him if he can talk. The, man~responds by shaking his head no > and grabbing at his neck. What is the significanceof the man's inability to talk? i ' ‘ ' ' ‘ 8) How will the lungs compensate for an aCute rise in the partial pressure of 002 in arterial blood? I ' 9) A patient with tuberculosis is often noncompliant with treatment. Explain why this may happen. 10) John hasundergone surgery and has developed pneumonia. He also has a history of emphysema. Which assessment parameters would the nurse expect to find? -' ' Bid 211 A & P 11 . Respiratory Practice Exam Dr.Dani Frederick—Duus . 11 mcumzofi <msm om<m >95 rm: 3.303? _uc_303m2 <m_<m 382 35032 55x >028 <m_<m rm: ugaozmé <m3m 353 9:3ng . mnoé rm: mica wqmsojmm Q. 9223 <m_<m 33 33632 <m5m Ojoamm $3385 363 mica 36:52 3505 0338 o." 83st 93% fizocmba <m_<m rm: <m3_._o_m 363 53306 36233052 38:2 <mzm om<m mmuEB .fi—JO IUD—A. OOHO—afl_ "—03 . m_.__oqm§_m1_.o£_ , Ifiow mama..sz ox 15.2mm >323? wan margin“? no. 0835:. .3 EOE—.0 ©mooo anfisia 003318. :8. 055:? 62m. 2. 363m 3243. 15:513. islfi. =< «5(— u:t..1:C S... ufltntitL Elia-Cl: (CCO E. 59:80 .on Smofiwxcn “Em AEEmcc‘ 55:: E Enigmme who: um_3o.=._o==m\._mEm § 38.0 mm>_m> E335 ncm 289$ ‘Eamnotk 8305:; 293% _m_=<. cmao m>_m> o_to< cmao m>_m> bacoESm c3; SEE 2035A”— Ucm o_oum>m _m_._u< F E 2836 JMMMomeMM .m_:oEcw> u. bawswfi 2993 at? I U820 o>_m> oEo< ummofi m>_m> bacoESn. ’ Ductus arteriosus‘ constricts and becomes solid Aorta . Foram'en ovale closes ENS and becomes . ' fossa ovalis‘lbom "gamemumfim I artenosum _ I Blood (333% Ductus venosus '1'th m constrictsa\ncr oxygen becomes solid , Blood 92m ligamentum lowin venosum 1- oxygen Inferior . vena cava . a. .2 .L' x v Umbilical anefles constrict ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course SCIENCE Bio 211 taught by Professor Dr.frederickduss during the Spring '11 term at Midlands Tech.

Page1 / 21

Practice Test From Previous Semesterdr. Frederick Duss Exam 2

This preview shows document pages 1 - 21. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online