chap06_8up

Heath 60 74 unconstrained optimization nonlinear

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Unformatted text preview: min f (x) subject to g (x) = 0 Rn where f : → R and g : Rn → Rm , with m ≤ n, we seek critical point of Lagrangian L(x, λ) = f (x) + λT g (x) In this method, linear system at each iteration is of form (J T (xk )J (xk ) + µk I )sk = −J T (xk )r (xk ) Applying Newton’s method to nonlinear system where µk is scalar parameter chosen by some strategy L(x, λ) = Corresponding linear least squares problem is J (xk ) −r (xk ) √ s∼ = µk I k 0 Scientiﬁc Computing T f (x) + Jg (x)λ =0 g (x) we obtain linear system T B (x, λ) Jg (x) Jg (x) O With suitable strategy for choosing µk , this method can be very robust in practice, and it forms basis for several effective software packages < interactive example > Michael T. Heath 60 / 74 Unconstrained Optimization Nonlinear Least Squares Constrained Optimization Equality-Constrained Optimization Levenberg-Marquardt method is another useful alternative when Gauss-Newton approximation is inadequate or yields rank deﬁcient linear least squares subproblem Optimization Problems One-Dimensional Optimization Multi-Dimensional Optimization Scientiﬁc Computing s =− δ T f (x) + Jg (x)λ g (x) for Newton step (s, δ ) in (x, λ) at each iteration Michael T. Heath 61 / 74 Unconstrained Optimization Nonlinear Least Squares Constrained Optimization Optimization Problems One-Dimensional Optimization Multi-Dimensional Optimization Sequential Quadratic Programming Scientiﬁc Computing 62 / 74 Unconstrained Optimization Nonlinear Least Squares Constrained Optimization Merit Function Once Newton step (s, δ ) determined, we need merit function to measure progress toward overall solution for use in line search or trust region Foregoing block 2 × 2 linear system is equivalent to quadratic programming problem, so this approach is known as sequential quadratic programming Popular choices include penalty function Types of solution methods include φρ (x) = f (x) + 1 ρ g (x)T g (x) 2 Direct solution methods, in which entire block 2 × 2 system is solved directly Range space methods, based on block elimination in block 2 × 2 linear system Null space methods, based on orthogonal factorization of T matrix of constraint normals, Jg (x) and augmented Lagrangian function Lρ (x, λ) = f (x) + λT g (x) + 1 ρ g (x)T g (x) 2 where parameter ρ > 0 determines relative weighting of optimality vs feasibility Given starting guess x0 , good starting guess for λ0 can be obtained from least squares problem J T (x0 ) λ0 ∼ − f (x0 ) = < interactive example > g Michael T. Heath Scientiﬁc Computing 63 / 74 Michael T. Heath Scientiﬁc Computing 64 / 74 Optimization Problems One-Dimensional Optimization Multi-Dimensional Optimization Unconstrained Optimization Nonlinear Least Squares Constrained Optimization Inequality-Constrained Optimization Penalty Methods Merit function can also be used to convert equality-constrained problem into sequence of unconstrained problems Methods just outlined for equality constraints can be extended to handle inequality constraints by using...
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course MECHANICAL 581 taught by Professor Wasfy during the Fall '11 term at IUPUI.

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