chap06_8up

# N but expensive for larger n interactive example

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Most library routines for one-dimensional optimization are based on this hybrid approach Then move to new point along straight line from current point having highest function value through centroid of other points Popular combination is golden section search and successive parabolic interpolation, for which no derivatives are required New point replaces worst point, and process is repeated Direct search methods are useful for nonsmooth functions or for small n, but expensive for larger n < interactive example > Michael T. Heath Optimization Problems One-Dimensional Optimization Multi-Dimensional Optimization Scientiﬁc Computing 29 / 74 Unconstrained Optimization Nonlinear Least Squares Constrained Optimization Steepest Descent Method Scientiﬁc Computing 30 / 74 Unconstrained Optimization Nonlinear Least Squares Constrained Optimization Steepest Descent, continued Let f : Rn → R be real-valued function of n real variables Given descent direction, such as negative gradient, determining appropriate value for αk at each iteration is one-dimensional minimization problem At any point x where gradient vector is nonzero, negative gradient, − f (x), points downhill toward lower values of f min f (xk − αk f (xk )) αk In fact, − f (x) is locally direction of steepest descent: f decreases more rapidly along direction of negative gradient than along any other that can be solved by methods already discussed Steepest descent method is very reliable: it can always make progress provided gradient is nonzero Steepest descent method: starting from initial guess x0 , successive approximate solutions given by But method is myopic in its view of function’s behavior, and resulting iterates can zigzag back and forth, making very slow progress toward solution xk+1 = xk − αk f (xk ) where αk is line search parameter that determines how far to go in given direction Michael T. Heath Michael T. Heath Optimization Problems One-Dimensional Optimization Multi-Dimensional Optimization Scientiﬁc Computing In general, convergence rate of steepest descent is only linear, with constant factor that can be arbitrarily close to 1 31 / 74 Michael T. Heath Scientiﬁc Computing 32 / 74 Optimization Problems One-Dimensional Optimization Multi-Dimensional Optimization Unconstrained Optimization Nonlinear Least Squares Constrained Optimization Unconstrained Optimization Nonlinear Least Squares Constrained Optimization Optimization Problems One-Dimensional Optimization Multi-Dimensional Optimization Example: Steepest Descent Example, continued Use steepest descent method to minimize xk f (x) = 0.5x2 + 2.5x2 1 2 Gradient is given by Taking x0 = f (x) = 5 , we have 1 5.000 3.333 2.222 1.481 0.988 0.658 0.439 0.293 0.195 0.130 x1 5x2 f (x0 ) = 5 5 Performing line search along negative gradient direction, min f (x0 − α0 f (x0 )) α0 exact minimum along line is given by α0 = 1/3, so next 3.333 approximation is x1 = −0.667 Michael T. Heath Optimization Problems One-Dimensional Optimization...
View Full Document

## This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course MECHANICAL 581 taught by Professor Wasfy during the Fall '11 term at IUPUI.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online