Social Psychology - Social Psychology SUBTITLES NOTES UNIT...

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Social Psychology SUBTITLES NOTES UNIT 1 -- PEOPLE AS SOCIAL ANIMALS: SOCIAL ORIGINS OF HUMAN THOUGHT AND BEHAVIOUR Lecture 1 Social psych: study of reciprocal influence of the individual and his/her social environment o Abstract theory and concrete practice (it is possible to extract basic patterns of human behaviour, statistically reliable probabilities, likelihood, correlations) Need to verify common sense: intuitions must be tested against empirical data Eg. o Hard work: o Blowing off steam: aggressive sports lead to aggressive behaviour Social Facilitation (improving or impairing) Working in presence of an audience vs. working alone- which performance is better? o Zajonc: Presence of others increases arousal (physiological) Energizes and facilitates ‘dominant response’ (most quickly and easily recalled behaviour) – well learned response=usually correct/poorly-learned response=not Even present in nonhumans : ‘Cockroach Exp.’ (easy vs. hard maze) THUS: An audience should improve performance that are easy for you and hamper performance on tasks that are more difficult (mere exposure is sufficient, social) o Cottrell: Evaluation Apprehension (social) Threat of evaluation will influence your performance rather than mere exposure o Schmitt: lead to social facilitation and rejected Cottrell’s postulate (blind-folded ppl’s mere presence indeed influence one’s performance) o Baron: Distraction Conflict We have an urge to investigate distracting activities; any sort of distracting stimulus will influence performance, and not only SOCIAL Social Loafing Working in presence of others – cause us to relax than get aroused? o When efforts are pooled (juries, orchestra, assembly lines), performance of any one individual is difficult or impossible for observers to determine Ringelmann (French agriculturalist): pulling on ropes (systematic decrease on individual amount pulled when group size increase) Whole is less than sum of its parts Latane: screaming as loud as possible (dependent variable: decibel lvl) Separate rooms (part of team or alone); rules out interference (physics) 1 other person, 82%; 5 other ppl 74% o Why does this occur? Group is less coordinated (more interference) ppl try less hard o What reduces loafing? 1. Identifiability (lack of anonymity) 2. Importance of task 3. Perceptions of own efforts necessary for success 4. Threat of punishment (presupposed identifiably; also group punishment) 5. Small group 6. Group cohesion (division of labour) o Karau & Williams: collective effort model Big tradeoff: effort is fatiguing, but success is desired Ppl seek to optimize the ratio btw own input and group output Social compensation (when others aren’t going to do well, we exert more of our own effort to do well for the group entirely): Plaks & Higgins 2000 (stereotypes were brought into the equation)
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Group Decision Making Who makes riskier decisions-individual or group? o
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course PSY 220 taught by Professor Platz during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Social Psychology - Social Psychology SUBTITLES NOTES UNIT...

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