p2f10_lec12_matter_waves - Physics 2 Lecture 12 Fall 2010...

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Unformatted text preview: Physics 2 Lecture 12 Fall 2010 Matter Waves , therefore waves matter. The DeBroglie Hypothesis The wavefunction The Schrodinger equation Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Dual nature of light In your activity yesterday you used a diffraction grating to select a particular wavelength of light. This light was then incident on a photoelectric detector , which is dependent on energy arriving in quantized bundles (photons). Your ability to see the light depends on photochemistry performed by photons on the chromophores in your retina. The way that light expresses itself in a measurement depends on what measurement you do. Simple experiments tell us that light has both wavelike and particle-like behavior – The photoelectric effect* (particle-like) – Double slit interference* (wave-like) – Michelson interferometer (wave-like) – X-ray diffraction (wave-like) – The Compton effect (particle-like) – Photon counting experiments (particle-like) – Photochemistry [vision, photosynthesis] (particle-like) – Solar cell (particle-like) * You’ve done/seen these experiments The bottom line on light In many experiments, light behaves like a wave (c=phase velocity, f =frequency, λ =wavelength; c= λ f ). In many other experiments, light behaves like a quantum particle (photon) with properties: photon energy: photon momentum: photon hc E hf h p λ λ = = = Some compelling experiments: The wavelike behavior of particles Experiments that tell us that electrons have wave-like properties too – electron diffraction from crystals (waves) Other particles – proton diffraction from nuclei – neutron diffraction from crystals – alpha particle diffraction from crystals – buckeyballs X-ray Diffraction Pattern A diffraction pattern is observed when x-rays of many wavelengths are incident on a crystal and diffraction can therefore occur from many planes simultaneously. …pretty 2 sin n d n θ λ = d = distance between atom planes X-rays are frequently detected with a Geiger counter, which responds to individual photons. Electron diffraction from crystals electron and x-ray diffraction patterns from single crystal (above) and polycrystals (left) Quantitative electron diffraction Electrons diffract from crystals just like light from a grating....
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2011 for the course PHYS 1010 taught by Professor Schroeder during the Spring '07 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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p2f10_lec12_matter_waves - Physics 2 Lecture 12 Fall 2010...

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