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GTY 154 - Chapter 5V2

GTY 154 - Chapter 5V2 - GTY154 BiologyofAging...

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    GTY 154 Biology of Aging
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Biological Aging Austad (2001) A process of intrinsic, progressive,  and generalized physical deterioration  that occurs over time Intrinsic Aging Extrinsic Aging
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Theories of Biological Aging Two groups of theories Programmed Theories Same processes that cause animals to  grow and thrive, also lead to senescence  and death Error Theories Aging is a by-product of errors or  mistakes in the body
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Programmed Theories:  Programmed Senescence Programmed Senescence Cell division has a limit Haylflick Limit Cells stop dividing due to structure  and function changes
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Programmed Theories:  Programmed Senescence Findings indicate that Cells undergo programmed decline Rate of decline differs for each  organism Genetic differences help determine  organism’s life span
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Programmed Theories:  Endocrine & Immunological Theory Endocrine & Immunological Theory Endocrine system responds to  internal and external body changes Changes in levels of estrogen and  testosterone Immune system
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Error Theories Somatic Mutation Theory Mistakes take place in synthesis of  proteins Damage to DNA Large numbers of defective proteins  leads to cell and tissue death
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Error Theories Cross-Linking Theory Glycation Causes proteins to bind together    (cross-link) Increases with age Macrophages fight glucose molecules
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Error Theories Free Radicals Theory “Oxygen Paradox” Molecules with unpaired electron, free  energy, bond with other molecules Can damage tissues and other  molecules Caused by normal cell metabolism
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Error Theories:  Free Radicals Theory Three phases Extra electron attaches to molecular  oxygen and produces free radical Free radical roams body, takes electron  from another molecule Free radicals react with DNA or RNA Anti-oxidants bind and neutralize free  radicals
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Other Theories Population dynamics Life history of the organism Theory of natural selection
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Effects of Aging on Body  Systems Musculoskeletal System Muscle and bone content decrease
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