GTY 154 - Chapter 6V2

GTY 154 - Chapter 6V2 - GTY 154 The Life Course Memory...

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GTY 154 The Life Course
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Memory Recall after learning has taken place The most studied topic by psychologists in the field of aging The Information Processing Model Process of remembering as a series of steps Perception of information Acting on information and transforming it Storage of information
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Memory Most testing done in laboratory Allows control Usually cross-sectional Usual results suggest a general decline in memory with age Results differ when focused on different parts of the information processing model
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Memory Little age difference in sensory or primary memory Age differences in episodic (working) memory Long-term memory requirements Encoding Storage Retrieval
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Memory Much age-related memory decline related to decreased processing speed Earlier tasks slow later activity Information from earlier tasks lost as more recent tasks performed More message “travel time” due to changes in neutral network Accounts for large proportion of age- related variance across different kinds of tasks and environments
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Memory Sensory and Brain Changes Age related sensory change and declines in cognition Auditory changes Visual changes Brain changes Loss of pre-frontal gray matter Less activation of neurons in some parts of brain
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Memory Other influences Genetics Cellular Function Brain physiology Further influences
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Memory and Everyday Life Lab studies do not describe everyday functions of older adults very well Studies of everyday life Individuals have good memory for general knowledge and areas of own expertise These abilities increase throughout adulthood
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Memory and Everyday Life Longitudinal studies Growth in comprehension through late middle age Only small decrease until very old age
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Intelligence The mind’s ability to function Four phases of research 1. 1920-1950 2. 1950s – mid 1960s 3. Late 1960s – mid 1970s 4. Late 1970s – present
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Intelligence Psychometric perspective Most intelligence studies take place in a laboratory and compare performance of younger and older people Until 1960s, cross-sectional approaches Showed peak intelligence around age 30, then decline Longitudinal studies found much slower decline, but only after age 60
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Intelligence Various skills studied Vocabulary, comprehension, performance Fluid Intelligence Relies on how well central nervous system works Crystallized Intelligence Depends on person’s education or store of information
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Intelligence Methodological approaches Cross-sectional Cannot say whether memory changes in an individual over time Longitudinal Separate age differences from age changes
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