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# Ch 6 - Chapter6 XunLi LearningObjectives 1 Introduction 2 3...

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Chapter 6.  Statistical Quality Control Xun Li

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2 Learning Objectives 1. Introduction 2. Descriptive Statistics* 3. Statistical Process Control 1. Process Capability*** 2. 6 Sigma Quality*
LO1:  Introduction Statistical Quality Control (SQC) The general category of statistical tools used to evaluate organizational  quality, which includes: Descriptive Statistics Statistics used to describe general quality characteristics and relationships General quality characteristics and relationships Not enough to evaluate whether there is a problem in the process (SPC) or in a batch of product (AS) Statistical Process Control (SPC) A statistical tool that involves inspecting a random sample of the output from a process and deciding whether  the  process  is producing products with characteristics that fall within a predetermined range. SPC helps to find quality problem during the production Acceptance Sampling (AS) The process of randomly inspecting a sample of goods and deciding whether to accept the entire lot based on  the results. Determine whether to accept the entire lot based on the results, after the product has been produced 3

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LO1:  Introduction Variations No two products are exactly alike because of slight  differences in materials, workers, machines, tools,  and other factors. Two sources of variations: Common causes of variation Random causes that cannot be identified Unavoidable Due to slight differences in processing Assignable causes of variation Causes that can be identified and eliminated 4
Review Common causes of variation are also  known as ____________________. a) Frequent b) Usual c) Inexpensive d) Ordinary e) Random 5

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LO2:  Descriptive Statistics Descriptive Statistics Central Tendency  Mean (Average) Dispersion Tendency Range:  The difference between the largest and smallest  observations in a set of data Standard Deviation (Sigma) A statistical that measures the amount of data dispersion around the  mean. The larger STD, the more dispersed. 6 ( 29 1 n X x σ n 1 i 2 i - - = =
Descriptive Statistics Outliers An observation that is  numerically distant from the rest of  the data Statistics derived from data sets that include outliers will often  be misleading In POM,  outliers are indicative for quality problems . Various definitions

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Ch 6 - Chapter6 XunLi LearningObjectives 1 Introduction 2 3...

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