Marks2ch05 - CHAPTER 5 THE GAP This chapter explores the...

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C HAPTER 5 T HE G AP This chapter explores the processes by which a huge and growing gap opened between the industrialized parts of the world, and Asia and Africa. In particular, the gap is shown to have opened up late in history (in the early 1800s), and to have been the result of specific historical processes, not a “better” or “more advanced” European culture. While competitive war pressures forced other European countries to industrialize just to keep up with Britain, India deindustrialized under British colonial rule, opium and el Niño–induced famines in China debilitated the ability of its government to protect the country, and the tools of empire led to the colonization of Africa. Whereas India and China had accounted for two-thirds of the world’s industrial production in 1800, by 1900 their proportion had shrunk to less than 10 percent. Nationalism was pushing European powers toward a global war, while Africa and Asia became third world countries, supplying the industrialized world with raw materials and consuming their manufactured goods. Key Terms/Vocabulary collective action Communist Manifesto deindustrialization depression ecological warfare el Niño ENSO (el Niño–Southern Oscillation) eugenics GDP (gross domestic product) global capitalism industrialization Maxim gun Meiji era middle class nationalism nation-building nations New Imperialism nobility Open Door Notes quinine recession revolution rifling scientific racism scramble for Africa scramble for China slump social Darwinism standard of living Taiping Rebellion
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Marks2ch05 - CHAPTER 5 THE GAP This chapter explores the...

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