Marks2glossary

Marks2glossary - SELECTED GLOSSARY TERMS accident...

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S ELECTED G LOSSARY T ERMS accident (historical): An event in human history that is unpredictable and/or beyond human control. agency: The ability to make one’s own history. agrarian: Economies centered around agriculture. agrarian empire: An empire built around, and specializing in, agriculture. B . C . E .: Before the Common Era; B . C . biological old regime: The material and natural conditions under which most people lived prior to the nineteenth century; agriculture and industry both dependent upon capturing solar energy flows. Bolshevik Revolution: 1917 communist revolution in Russia that terminated tsarist rule and resulted in the formation of the USSR. Black Death: A virulent epidemic disease more commonly known as the bubonic plague, which in the mid-1300s killed tens of millions of people throughout Eurasia. bureaucracy: A body of non-elected government officials with specialized functions. ca.: Short for “circa,” meaning in or around a certain year or time frame, and usually used when specific dates are not certain. calico: Indian cotton textiles used to make nearly all domestic cloth products, such as clothes and linens, before the country was deindustrialized under British colonial rule. capitalism: An economic system characterized by private ownership of capital and heavily reliant on market factors to determine production, distribution, wages, and prices. C . E .: Common Era; A . D . circa: About, used preceding an approximate date or figure. civilizations: Societies characterized by cities, writing, and social-class division. Cold War: Post–World War II tension between the United States and the USSR and their respective allies, centered around the threat of nuclear war. Colombian exchange: The ecological and biological encounter between the Old World and the New, with a legacy of delivering great amounts of New World foodstuffs to the Old World diets, and in turn bringing Old World diseases to a New World population that was highly susceptible to the diseases. commodity: A product exchanged via markets. communism: Political and economic system where the government curtails private enterprise and controls the production and distribution of commodities. conjuncture: When several otherwise independent developments come together in ways that interact with one another, creating a unique historical moment. consumerism: Economic model adapted by the United States in the twentieth century in which the demand for consumer products drives economic development forward. containment: United States Cold War policy that stressed the importance of preventing communism from spreading to the developing world. contingency: Something that may happen as an adjunct to or as a result of something else. core: The center metropolis of a system, where people, power, and wealth are concentrated and
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Marks2glossary - SELECTED GLOSSARY TERMS accident...

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