PLB143 Final Study Guide

PLB143 Final Study Guide - PLB143S11: Final Examination...

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Unformatted text preview: PLB143S11: Final Examination Study Questions Lecture 13 Definitions Yield potential Yield of a cultivar when grown in environments to which it is adapted, with nutrients and water non-limiting and with pests, diseases, weeds, lodging and other stresses effectively controlled Yield potential of crops has been a much used but elusive concept which has proved difficult to define in a rigorous way Mainly for measured comparisons of cultivars The most important trait o Subsistence agriculture: food or other products o Marker-linked agriculture: income Two types of genes: o Yield genes (increased yield) o Stress-resistance genes (prevent yield reductions) Ex: the higher level of N availability also made selection for increased chlorophyll and rubisco content in wheat, and longer stay green in maize raising the yield potential For maize and rice, yield potential is correlated with the number of background land races, but this may be fortuitous If everything goes right no disease, pest, ideal environment Potential yield Defined as the maximum yield which could be reached by a crop in given environments, as determined, for example, by simulation models with plausible physiological and agronomic assumptions Potential yield: theoretical maximum yield given physiological and environmental conditions Realized yield Mainly for comparisons between different crops and different environments, as well as for estimating plausible future limits to crop yields. Ex: Redwood is really high so water circulation needs to be better Biophysical and biochemical characteristics Treating plant like a machine o Theoretical concept o Dont discuss stress and pests and diseases Ex: transport of water in a redwood tree (biophysical) Ideotype Idealized plant type to achieve high yield in a specific environment and cropping system Traits o Short stem (no lodging..but less competitive) o Fewer leaves (just enough to intercept available light) o Single, nonbranching stem (dont waste resources contesting space w/neighbors) o Early flowering (longer grain fill period) o High harvest index (more grain, less leaf + stem) o Erect leaves (high RUEspreads available light over more leaf area) Strong increase in yield with no end in sight Diverse routes to higher yields o By design o Empirical testing Ex: the original tropical rice breeding and physiology team at IRRI probably represents one of the best example of deliberate and successful pursuit of such an ideotype Ex: wheat Questions 1) Ack! Your major professor has just asked you to put together an ideotype for the orphan crop Professorium geptsium with which you will be working for your PhD. P. geptsium is a grass species your group is hoping to breed for increased grain yield. Describe the ideotype for P. geptsium , including the importance of each trait included....
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2011 for the course PLB 143 taught by Professor Gepts during the Spring '07 term at UC Davis.

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PLB143 Final Study Guide - PLB143S11: Final Examination...

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