ch2 - Chapter 2 Cognitive Development and Language 1. What...

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Chapter 2 Cognitive Development and Language 1. What are the different kinds of development? - Development: Orderly, adaptive changes that humans go through from conception to death. Physical development: Changes in body structure that take place as one grows. Social and emotional development: changes over time in the ways in which one relates to others and the self. Cognitive development: Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated. Maturation: Genetically programmed, naturally occurring changes over time. 2. What are three principles of development? People develop at different rates: in classroom, there are diverse students with different stages of developments. Some are more mature in thinking; some others are better coordinated. . Development is relatively orderly: People learn to sit before stand; climb before walk; laugh before talk…. Development takes place gradually: It takes time to develop. No rush. 3. What part of the brain is associated with higher mental functions? - The Brain and Cognitive Development Brain Functions The cerebellum Higher cognitive functions such as learning The hippocampus Recalling new information and recent experiences Amygdala Direct emotions Thalamus Our ability to learn new information(verbal) Reticular formation Attention and arousal Corpus callosum Moves information from one side to the brain of other side - Pruning is necessary and supports cognitive development because unused neurons will be “pruned” by age two to three when neurons are oversupplied. - Two kinds of pruning processes (over-production): Experience expectant: synapses are overproduced in certain parts of the brain during certain developmental periods, awaiting stimulation. (Deaf infants can’t get their auditory areas of the brain develop, and then the area is devoted to processing visual information) Experience-dependent: synaptic connections are formed based on the individual’s experiences. New synapses are formed in response to neural activity in very localized areas of the brain, when individuals cannot processing information successfully. (Learning unfamiliar sounds)
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- Factors that influence thinking and learning Plasticity: The brain’s tendency to remain somewhat adaptable or flexible. Early severe stimulus deprivation can have lasting effects, but because of brain plasticity or adaptability, some compensation can overcome deprivation or damage. Myelination: The process by which neural fibres are coated with a fatty sheath called myelin that makes message transfer more efficient. (happens in early years) - The cerebral cortex (Frontal lobe) controls higher-order thinking processes. -
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ch2 - Chapter 2 Cognitive Development and Language 1. What...

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