Chapter 3 - :Evolution,Genes,andBrain I : A ,tofeel,and .

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Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior: Evolution, Genes, and Brain I. Evolution and Behavior: Influences From the Distant Past     A. Evolution of Adaptive Mechanisms:  - Biologically based mechanisms  that will enable and predispose us to behave, to feel, and  even to think in certain ways. In humans, these inborn capacities allow us to learn, remember,  speak a language, perceive certain as aspects of our environment at birth, respond with  universal emotions, and bond with others.  1. Evolution of Adaptive Mechanisms Evolution  is a change over time in the frequency with which particular genes – and the  characteristics they produce – occur within an interbreeding population. Some  genetic  variations  arise in a population through  mutations , random events and accidents in  gene reproduction during the division of cells.  Natural Selection : characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and ability to  reproduce within a particular environment will be more likely to be preserved in the  population and therefore will become more common in the species over time.  A set of  filters  allowing certain characteristics of survivors to become more  common Allowing  neutral variation s that neither facilitate nor impede fitness to be  preserved in a population.  Evolutionary noise , could conceivably become important in meeting some future  environmental demand - Evolutionary Adaptation:  The products of natural selection are called  adaptation s, physical or behavioral  changes that allow organisms to meet recurring environmental challenges  to their  survival, thereby increasing their reproductive ability. ( The reason why evolutionary  psychologists believe why animals and humans may risk or even sacrifice their lives  to protect their kin and the genes they carry. )  Bipedal locomotion:  By freeing the hands, bipedalism fostered the development and  use of tools and weapons that could kill at a distance.  - Brain Evolution The brain structures involved in the abilities most critical to the emerging way of life:  attention, memory, language, and thought. ( Australopithecus -> Homo Erectus ->  Neandertal -> Homo Sapiens ) The change of behavior contributed to the development of the brain; the growth of  the brain contributed evolving human behavior Neandertal’s brain than much larger than us. This provides evidence that human  capabilities are not solely determined by the brain, but  cultural evolution  is also  important in the development of adaptations. This is because culture provides  important environmental inputs to evolutionary mechanisms. 
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