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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior: Evolution, Genes, and Brain I. Evolution and Behavior: Influences From the Distant Past A. Evolution of Adaptive Mechanisms: - Biologically based mechanisms that will enable and predispose us to behave, to feel, and even to think in certain ways. In humans, these inborn capacities allow us to learn, remember, speak a language, perceive certain as aspects of our environment at birth, respond with universal emotions, and bond with others. 1. Evolution of Adaptive Mechanisms Evolution is a change over time in the frequency with which particular genes and the characteristics they produce occur within an interbreeding population. Some genetic variations arise in a population through mutations , random events and accidents in gene reproduction during the division of cells. Natural Selection : characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and ability to reproduce within a particular environment will be more likely to be preserved in the population and therefore will become more common in the species over time. A set of filters allowing certain characteristics of survivors to become more common Allowing neutral variation s that neither facilitate nor impede fitness to be preserved in a population. Evolutionary noise , could conceivably become important in meeting some future environmental demand- Evolutionary Adaptation: The products of natural selection are called adaptation s, physical or behavioral changes that allow organisms to meet recurring environmental challenges to their survival, thereby increasing their reproductive ability. ( The reason why evolutionary psychologists believe why animals and humans may risk or even sacrifice their lives to protect their kin and the genes they carry. ) Bipedal locomotion: By freeing the hands, bipedalism fostered the development and use of tools and weapons that could kill at a distance. - Brain Evolution The brain structures involved in the abilities most critical to the emerging way of life: attention, memory, language, and thought. ( Australopithecus -> Homo Erectus -> Neandertal -> Homo Sapiens ) The change of behavior contributed to the development of the brain; the growth of the brain contributed evolving human behavior Neandertals brain than much larger than us. This provides evidence that human capabilities are not solely determined by the brain, but cultural evolution is also important in the development of adaptations. This is because culture provides important environmental inputs to evolutionary mechanisms. - An Evolutionary Snapshot of Human Nature:...
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2011 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Georgealder during the Spring '07 term at Simon Fraser.
- Spring '07