psy100ch2 - Chapter 2 I. ScientificPrinciplesinPsychology A.

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Chapter 2 I. Scientific Principles in Psychology A. Scientific Attitudes B. Gathering Evidence: Steps in the Scientific Process The Scientific Process: is a sequence that represents one common path to scientific  understanding.  - Initial Observation or Question - Gather Information and Form Hypothesis - Test Hypothesis - Analyze Data and Draw Tentative Conclusion  - Report Findings to Scientific Community - Further Research and Theory Building - New Hypotheses Derived from Theory C. Two Approaches to understanding behavior 1. Hindsight (After the Fact Understanding): is probably our most common method of  trying to understand behavior. Knowing any result, we will try to come up with an  explanation for that result.  2. Understanding through Prediction, Control, and Theory Building: this is a scientific  alternative to after-the-fact understanding ; theory building  is the strongest test of  scientific understanding, because good theories generate an integrated network of  predictions.  Good Theory It incorporates with existing knowledg e within a broad framework.  Testable.  Predictions are supportive by the findings of new research.  Conforms to the law of parsimony: if two theories can explain and  predict the same, the simpler one is the preferred one.  D. Defining and Measuring Variables: Variable is any characteristic or factor that can vary.  An operational definition defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to  produce or measure it. Operational definitions translate abstract terms into something  observable and measurable.  1. Self Reports and Reports by Others: Self-report measures ask people to report on  their status.  Challenge: Distortion maybe found by social desirability bias Social Desirability Bias: The tendency to respond in a socially  acceptable manner rather than according to how one truly feels or  behaves. 
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Chapter 2 2. Observation of behavior: - Coding System:  A recording system to categorize behaviors.  - Unobtrusive measure:  which records behavior in a way that keeps participants  unaware that they are being observed.  - Archival Measure : which are records or documents that already exist.  3. Psychological Tests
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2011 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Georgealder during the Spring '07 term at Simon Fraser.

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psy100ch2 - Chapter 2 I. ScientificPrinciplesinPsychology A.

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