Ling 360 Midterm 2 Review

Ling 360 Midterm 2 Review - Ling 360 Midterm 2 Review...

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Ling 360 Midterm 2 Review Learning Objectives: Understanding Methods and the 10 Teaching Principles A. Method: a systematic, procedural way of teaching a language Why? - A reflection that aids teachers to consciously aware their thinking/teaching actions - Knowledge of methods are basis - Professional community may challenge different views of teaching - Expand teaching techniques - Decontextualized (abstract) i) Teacher/student ii) Expectation of social rules iii) Institutional constraints The Ten Teaching Principles 1. Instruction needs to ensure that learners develop both a rich repertoire of formulaic expressions and a rule-based competence Formulaic expression caters fluency Rule-based competence caters accuracy. 2. Instruction needs to ensure that learners focus predominantly on meaning Semantic meaning: the meaning of lexical items or grammatical rules Pragmatic meaning: highly contextualized meaning arise in speech acts. 3. Instruction needs to ensure that learners also focus on form Offer attention to form through corrective feedback in task-based lessons 4. Instruction needs to be predominantly directed at developing implicit knowledge of the L2 while not neglecting explicit knowledge Implicit knowledge: procedural knowledge that is held unconsciously. (needed for fluent communication) Explicit knowledge: declarative knowledge of phonological, grammatical, lexical, pragmatic features of L2. It is held consciously. It is accessed through controlled processing when difficulty arises. Implicit knowledge is the ultimate goal of instructional program. 5. Instruction needs to take into account the learner’s built in syllabus Krashen showed that learners follow “natural order”, a sequence of acquisition: master grammatical structure in a fixed, universal order. Ensure that learners are developmentally ready to acquire structure Focus on explicit instruction because it is not subject to developmental constraints.
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6. Successful instructed language learning requires extensive L2 input The more exposure, the more and the faster they will learn. The relation between residence and mastery of L2. Comprehensible input - Modifying input - Means of contextual props 7. Successful instructed language learning also requires opportunities for output “pushed output”: the output which learners need to express messages clearly and explicitly. Controlled practices resulted in minimal output.
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