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02-Sensory - Sensory Science The Perception of Food 1...

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1 Sensory Science & The Perception of Food
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2 Sensory Science What is it? Sensory Quality Factors • Appearance • Flavor • Texture Sensory Attributes of Foods • Appearance • Flavor – Aroma/Odor/Smell – Gustation/Taste – Astringency – Trigeminal senses (Pain/ Irritation/ Temperature) • Texture
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3 Ancient Chinese Food Science Ancient Chinese theory of five phases In Ancient China the Taoist added to the concept of Yin and Yang the theory known as the 5 Elements Earth, wood, fire, metal, and water 5 colors, 5 tastes, 5 smells, etc… Vision: Appearance. Surface structure, Color, shape
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4 The color world is a 3 dimensional space, Like an xyz space in math Munsell System http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munsell_color_system 5 of 7 of the FD&C Artificial Food Dyes Dye Common Name Found In Red No. 40 Allura Red The most widely used food dye in terms of pounds consumed, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest. Found in cereal, gelatin, candy, baked goods. Yellow No. 5 Tartrazine The second most widely used food dye. Found in soft drinks, pudding, chips, pickles, honey, mustard, gum, baked goods, gelatin and other foods. Yellow No. 6 Sunset Yellow The third most widely used food dye. Found in cereal, orange soda and other beverages, hot chocolate mix, baked goods and many other foods. Red No. 3 Erythrosine B Candy, popsicles, cake decoration and other baked goods, maraschino cherries Blue No. 1 Brilliant Blue Ice cream, canned peas, candy, drinks, dessert powders, mouthwash FD&C (Food, Drugs & Cosmetics) certified color additives for use in foods in the United States Twizzlers Mountain Dew Reese's Pieces Maraschino cherries Blue M&Ms
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5 Natural food dyes A growing number of natural food dyes are being commercially produced, partly due to consumer concerns surrounding synthetic dyes. Some examples include: Caramel coloring (E150), used in cola products Annatto (E160b), a reddish-orange dye made from the seed of the achiote. Chlorophyll (E140) a green dye made from cholorella algae Cochineal (E120), a red dye derived from the cochineal insect, Dactylopius coccus Turmeric (E100) Saffron (carotenoids, E160a) Paprika (E160c) Natural colors are not required to be tested by a number of regulatory bodies throughout the world, including the United States FDA. The FDA lists "color additives exempt from certification" for food in the Code of Federal Regulations
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6 Chemical senses Taste, aromas, and other chemical signals can make the mouth water, evoke vivid memories, and perhaps even signal stress or fertility. How does the brain sort it all out? Chemical Senses • Taste Astringency (tactile sensation) Pungency (Pain/ Irritation) • Smell NOTE: In parallel with the main olfactory system used for odor sensing, evolution has also spawned a separate ± accessory olfactory system ² in some animals for detecting ± pheromones ² —chemical signals used by individuals of the same species to mark territory, warn of danger, identify close relations, and induce mating.
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