BMB 401 LECTURE NOTES - Homeostasis: maintenance of an...

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Homeostasis: maintenance of an internal environment that optimally supports the Catabolic reactions- chemically break down larger molecules into smaller components Ex: breakdown of proteins Anabolic reactions chemically build larger molecules from smaller components Require energy Ex: synthesis of NT’s from Tyrosine Homeostasis requires Energy Input Energy Currency : Prime currency required in: - Biosynthetic reactions -Maintenance of ion concentrations (in muscles/neurons) - Muscle contraction/ other molecular mechanical motion - Generation of heat -All help support homeostatic environment 2. NADH Electron carrier - Supplies electrons for biochemical redox rcns - Supplies electrons used in generating ATP Catabolic Pathways: Macromolecules (proteins/lipids/carbs) Metabolic Intermediates (metabolites)- AAs/Fatty acids/ simple sugars *Know catabolic pathways largely divergent, oxidative- (e given off and transferred to carrier molecules like NAD), exergonic Take 1 molecule (protein) and break into constituent form (AA) Convergent- small compounds to make 1 macromolecule Reductive- e donated Endergonic- *Interconnected Networks: 1. Regulation 2. Efficiency- localization of enzymes substrates regulators 3. Coupling of reactions provides needed energy Classification based on observation of morphology and behavior Diagram shows tree of life, in which each individual branch= new species… as organisms evolve differences evolve that allow those to occupy a certain niche and gives
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rise to speciation. . Rudimentary classification based only on what it looks like and how it behaves Prokaryotes: no nuclei/ mb bound organelles/compartments E. coli- Outide to Inside: - Cell wall (made of sugar/protein to protect) - Plasma membrane (lipid based structure, similar to plasma mb in eukaryotes) - Ribosomes inside cytoplasm (molecular machines that make proteins) - DNA right in cytoplasm - Nucleoid- houses genomic DNA in cytoplasm - no mb barrier, RNA can be transcribed/ translated at the same time. - 1 circular piece of DNA, Exceptions Eukaryotes: animals/ plants both have different cell types. . - Nuclei- houses chromosomal DNA; bound by nuclear envelope (small molecules can enter & mRNA are released from pores) - ER contigious with envelope. . series of compartments. . for proteins that want to go outside cell, to inside compartment, or to membrane are synthesized and matured. . Smooth- used for lipid synthesis/ detoxification -Ribosomes - Golgi- stack of pancakes… site sugars or added to and removed from proteins Plants: cell wall (support for cell) Chloroplasts (use light energy to make carbs) Vacuole (regulate water pressure within cell) **** KNOW FUNCTIONS OF ORGANELLES RELISTEN TO LECTURE******* Circular genome exceptions: DON’T NEED TO KNOW Exceptions: - Spirochete in circadercic contains bacteria called spirochete- genome of spirochete has
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2011 for the course BMB 401 taught by Professor Kaguni during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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BMB 401 LECTURE NOTES - Homeostasis: maintenance of an...

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