Phys 0174 Fall 2008 - Chapter 18, 4 slides

Phys 0174 Fall 2008 - Chapter 18, 4 slides - Chapter 18...

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1 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat , and the First law of thermodynamics ¾ Temperature and the Zeroth law of thermodynamics ¾ Thermometers and temperature scales ¾ Thermal expansion ¾ Temperature and Heat ¾ Specific heat ¾ Heat of transformation ¾ Heat, Work, and the First law of thermodynamics ¾ Heat transfer mechanisms 2 The Three Laws of Thermodynamics: You can’t win (First Law) You can’t break even (Second Law) You can’t get out of the game (Zeroth Law) 3 Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that is built upon the fundamental laws that heat and work obey. The collection of objects on which attention is being focused is called the system , while everything else in the environment is called the surroundings . Walls that permit heat flow are called diathermal walls , while walls that do not permit heat flow are called adiabatic walls . To understand thermodynamics, it is necessary to describe the state of a system . 4 Two systems are said to be in thermal equilibrium if there is no heat flow between them when they are brought into contact. Temperature is the indicator of thermal equilibrium in the sense that there is no net flow of heat between two systems in thermal contact that have the same temperature.
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5 THE ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Two systems individually in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other. A C A B B C = = = You can’t get out of the game. 6 Temperatures are reported in degrees Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit . ( ) 5 32 9 9 32 5 C F F C T T T T = = + 7 15 . 273 + = c T T Kelvin temperature 8 Temperature – A measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a system. Heat – The energy transferred between two bodies due to a temperature difference. Once upon a time heat was believed to be an invisible fluid transferred between bodies at different temperatures. This fluid was called a caloric and that is why even today the common unit of heat is called the calorie .
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