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Completed midterm study guide

Completed midterm study guide - Midterm Study Guide-trends...

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Midterm Study Guide -trends in religion in late antiquity – what was changing and why? - why does monotheism lead to universalism?- Berkey makes two key points: the religions of late antiquity had a close relationship with states and monotheist religions need universalism, the idea that religion and its practices are applicable to all populations. Monotheism narrows the scope of what can be accepted in the religious realm, which sets up the initial path to religious universalism where there is only one certain way of practice. - role of the Lahkmids- aligned with Sassania and Ghassanids-aligned with HRE - the Council of Chalcedon ( Its principal purpose was to assert the orthodox Catholic doctrine against the heresy of Eutyches and the Monophysites , although ecclesiastical discipline and jurisdiction also occupied the council's attention.) Monophysites(only divine not human) vs. diophysites (both) - kaba - holiest place in Islam, temple that Abraham built, this is where muslims face to pray - political authority in Arabia – tribal, de-centralized, according to the oath of allegiance to the leader( bay`a ) - character of the Qur’an – Meccan vs. Medinan verses - the Meccan passages usually speak to Muhammad himself or to men generally, the Medinan passages are often addressed to Muhammad's followers with the introduction Yaa ayyuhallathiina aa'manuu - "O ye who believe!" What follows is often of a legislative nature and it is true to say that the laws of Islam (the shari'ah ) are found principally in the passages dating from Muhammad's migration to Medina. Whereas the Meccan surahs are prophetic in character and striking in style, these later surahs are generally legalistic and are more leisurely in style.
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