Chapter 10disability guide

Chapter 10disability guide - Blindness and Low Vision...

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Blindness and Low Vision (Chapter 10) Vocabulary Legal Definition of Blindness: is based on visual acuity and field of vision. Blindness includes visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision Educational Definition according to IDEA: an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance; term includes both partial sight and blindness Educators classify students with visual impairments based on the extent to which they use vision and/or auditory/tactile means for learning: o Totally blind: Receives no useful information through the sense of vision o Functionally blind: Learns primarily through the auditory and tactile senses o Low vision: Uses vision as a primary means of learning but may supplement by using tactile and auditory input Accommodation: adjustment of the eye for seeing at different distances Binocular Vision: vision using both eyes working together to perceive a single image Field of Vision: expanse of space visible with both eyes looking straight ahead Legally Blind: visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye after the best possible correction with glasses or contact lenses, or vision restricted to a field of 20 degrees or less Low vision: visual impairment severe enough so that special education services are required
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Mobility: ability to move safely and efficiently form one point to another Ocular Mobility: the eye’s ability to move Orientation: ability to establish one’s position in relation to the environment Orientation and Mobility (O&M): two complementary sets of skills that are critical for people with visual impairments; orientation is knowing where you are, where you are going, and how to get there by interpreting information from the environment; mobility involves moving safely and efficiently from one point to another Partially Sighted: term used for legal and governmental purposes that means acuity of no better than 20/70 in the better eye after correction Sighted-guided technique: method by which a sighted person can help a person with visual impairments travel Tunnel Vision: visual impairment in which a person has good central vision but poor peripheral vision Visual acuity: ability to clearly distinguish forms or discriminate details at a specific distance Characteristics Characteristics of Students with Visual Impairments Cognition and language o Impaired or absent vision makes it difficult to see the connections between experiences
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Motor development and mobility o Visual impairment often leads to delays and deficits in motor development Social adjustment and interaction o Children with visual impairments interact less and are often delayed in social skills o Many persons who have lost their sight report that the biggest difficulty socially is dealing with the attitudes and behavior of those around them
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Chapter 10disability guide - Blindness and Low Vision...

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