Review for Exam # 3: Classical, Romantic, and 20
Century Western Art Music
(This review material is meant to help you prepare for the test, but material from pp. 26-
38 and musician biographies of Beethoven, Chopin, Haydn, Mozart, Puccini,
Schoenberg, Clara Schumann, and Stravinsky may appear on the exam.
material should serve as an outline to which you can add material from your notes and
Musician biographies are found between pp. 65 and 95 of the text.)
Classical Era (1750-1820):
>Parallels the Age of Enlightenment: the power of reason is thought to be the greatest
power, over and above religion and emotion.
Important philosophers: Voltaire, Diderot,
>Many revolutions during this era: United States (1776), France (1789), Mexico (1813)
>Two styles in art: Rococo (like Baroque); Neoclassical (inspired by the clean, balanced
lines of antiquity).
Music tends to reflect Neoclassical art; see images of Thomas
Jefferson’s house, Monticello.
(Jefferson was minister to France from 1784-89, and was
a correspondent of C.P.E. Bach among others.)
>Proliferation of musical instruments: stringed instruments widely available, and more
and more, keyboards.
>Rhythm: has greater flexibility, smaller units, more simple.
the tune is the PRIZE of the piece; must be memorable and
>Dynamics: wider range and more subtle movement from loud to soft, etc.
>Classical Orchestra: standardized to four families, brass and woodwinds still
most important element along with melody.
>Most pieces have several movements, usually 3 or 4.
Four Movements (a three-movement form usually cuts the dance movement, with a
tempo scheme of fast-slow-fast)
a four-movement work for orchestra
a four-movement work for two violins, a viola, and a cello
(this is the beginning of chamber music, smaller ensembles that can travel
anywhere, including the Prince’s bath!)
Tempo scheme and forms typically found in 4-movement genres:
[very fast], Sonata Form
Mozart, Symphony No. 40 G minor, mvt. 1
[walking tempo], Theme and Variations
Haydn, Symphony No. 94 “Surprise”, mvt. 2
Movement 3: DANCE-LIKE
[light and moderate], Minuet and Trio
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
A Little Night Music
), mvt. 3
[fast], Rondeau (or Rondo) ABACABA