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Review for Exam3 - Review for Exam 3 Classical Romantic and...

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Review for Exam # 3: Classical, Romantic, and 20 th Century Western Art Music (This review material is meant to help you prepare for the test, but material from pp. 26- 38 and musician biographies of Beethoven, Chopin, Haydn, Mozart, Puccini, Schoenberg, Clara Schumann, and Stravinsky may appear on the exam. This review material should serve as an outline to which you can add material from your notes and the textbook. Musician biographies are found between pp. 65 and 95 of the text.) Classical Era (1750-1820): >Parallels the Age of Enlightenment: the power of reason is thought to be the greatest power, over and above religion and emotion. Important philosophers: Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau. >Many revolutions during this era: United States (1776), France (1789), Mexico (1813) >Two styles in art: Rococo (like Baroque); Neoclassical (inspired by the clean, balanced lines of antiquity). Music tends to reflect Neoclassical art; see images of Thomas Jefferson’s house, Monticello. (Jefferson was minister to France from 1784-89, and was a correspondent of C.P.E. Bach among others.) >Proliferation of musical instruments: stringed instruments widely available, and more and more, keyboards. In Music: >Rhythm: has greater flexibility, smaller units, more simple. > MELODY: the tune is the PRIZE of the piece; must be memorable and balanced >Dynamics: wider range and more subtle movement from loud to soft, etc. >Classical Orchestra: standardized to four families, brass and woodwinds still evolving > FORM: most important element along with melody. >Most pieces have several movements, usually 3 or 4. Four Movements (a three-movement form usually cuts the dance movement, with a tempo scheme of fast-slow-fast) > Symphony: a four-movement work for orchestra > String Quartet: a four-movement work for two violins, a viola, and a cello (this is the beginning of chamber music, smaller ensembles that can travel anywhere, including the Prince’s bath!) Tempo scheme and forms typically found in 4-movement genres: >Movement 1: FAST Molto Allegro [very fast], Sonata Form Mozart, Symphony No. 40 G minor, mvt. 1 >Movement 2: SLOW Andante [walking tempo], Theme and Variations Haydn, Symphony No. 94 “Surprise”, mvt. 2 > Movement 3: DANCE-LIKE Allegretto [light and moderate], Minuet and Trio Mozart, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik ( A Little Night Music ), mvt. 3 > Movement 4: FAST Allegro [fast], Rondeau (or Rondo) ABACABA 1
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Beethoven, String Quartet Opus 18 in C Minor, mvt. 4
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