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KMT_page3 - PHASE CHANGES • Transformations from one...

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Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids CHM12 ., < . . CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS o Metallic crystals: array of positive ions immersed ina sea ofdelocalized valence electrons 1. CRYSTALLINE: possesses rigid and long range order. Its atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific positions. Atoms, ions are arranged such that the netattractive intermolecular forces are attheir maximum. Forces present: ionic forces, covalent bonds, van der waals, hydrogen bonds or combinations. Types of crystals according to forces between particles o Ionic crystals: have high melting point and do not conduct electricity. Why? 2. Amorphous solids: does not possess awell defined arrangement and long range molecular order (example: glass) ! EEORDONO Page 3 o Molecular crystals: atoms or molecules are held together by Van der Waals forces and/or Hbonding. This
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Unformatted text preview: PHASE CHANGES • Transformations from one phase to another occur when energy is added or removed • Physical changes characterized by changes in molecular order 1. Liquid- Vapor Equilibrium a. Vapor Pressure: exerted by gaseous molecules as liquid evaporates • Dynamic equilibrium: rate of evaporation = rate of condensation • Equilibrium Vapor Pressure: vapour pressure measured when dynamic equilibrium exists between condensation and evaporation. • Inc vapour pressure •• increase temperature b. Molar Heat of Vaporization: is the energy required to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid. • Inc IMF •• Inc Heat of Vaporization - dec Vapor pressure o Covalent Crystals: atoms are held together entirely by covalent bonds in an extensive 3-~ network....
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