Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves23121.67Consider a cylindrical volume with and cross-sectional area 331.00 Liter1.0010mV−==×1.002mA=The length of this one liter cylinder is 21.0010m1.001.00 mVd310mA−×=−×Imagine this cylinder placed at the top of Earth’s atmosphere, with its length perpendicular to the incident wave fronts. Then, all the energy in the one liter volume of sunlight will strike the atmosphere in the time required for sunlight to travel the length of the cylinder. This time is 381.0010m3.333.0010 m sdtc−×∆= ==×1.00 (1210−×2ms The energy passing through the area of the end of the cylinder in this time is )()()av1 340 W m1.1EtIntens∆=⋅P2200 m3.33ityAt⋅⋅∆=×12s4.4710J−−=9×021.68The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is 0ACd=e, and its reactance in an AC circuit is 12CXfCπ=. Observe that reducing the plate separation to one-half of its
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