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03_technology

03_technology - CIS 501(Martin/Roth Technology 1 CIS 501...

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Unformatted text preview: CIS 501 (Martin/Roth): Technology 1 CIS 501 Computer Architecture Unit 3: Technology Slides originally developed by Amir Roth with contributions by Milo Martin at University of Pennsylvania with sources that included University of Wisconsin slides by Mark Hill, Guri Sohi, Jim Smith, and David Wood. CIS 501 (Martin/Roth): Technology 2 This Unit • Technology basis • Transistors & wires • Cost & fabrication • Implications of transistor scaling (Moore’s Law) CIS 501 (Martin/Roth): Technology 3 Readings • Chapter 1.1 of MA:FSPTCM • Paper • G. Moore, “Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits” CSE 371 (Roth): Performance 4 Review: Simple Datapath • How are instruction executed? • Fetch instruction (Program counter into instruction memory) • Read registers • Calculate values (adds, subtracts, address generation, etc.) • Access memory (optional) • Calculate next program counter (PC) • Repeat • Clock period = longest delay through datapath PC Insn Mem Register File s1 s2 d Data Mem + 4 Recall: Processor Performance • Programs consist of simple operations (instructions) • Add two numbers, fetch data value from memory, etc. • Program runtime = “seconds per program” = (instructions/program) * (cycles/instruction) * (seconds/cycle) • Instructions per program : “dynamic instruction count” • Runtime count of instructions executed by the program • Determined by program, compiler, instruction set architecture (ISA) • Cycles per instruction : “CPI” (typical range: 2 to 0.5) • On average, how many cycles does an instruction take to execute? • Determined by program, compiler, ISA, micro-architecture • Seconds per cycle : clock period, length of each cycle • Inverse metric: cycles per second (Hertz) or cycles per ns (Ghz) • Determined by micro-architecture, technology parameters • This unit: transistors & semiconductor technology CIS 501 (Martin/Roth): Technology 5 CSE 371 (Roth): Performance 6 Semiconductor Technology • Basic technology element: MOSFET • Solid-state component acts like electrical switch • MOS : metal-oxide-semiconductor • Conductor, insulator, semi-conductor • FET : field-effect transistor • Channel conducts source ! drain only when voltage applied to gate • Channel length : characteristic parameter (short ! fast) • Aka “feature size” or “technology” • Currently: 0.032 micron ( μ m), 32 nanometers (nm) • Continued miniaturization (scaling) known as “ Moore’s Law ” • Won’t last forever, physical limits approaching (or are they?) channel source drain insulator gate Substrate channel source drain gate CIS 501 (Martin/Roth): Technology 7 Complementary MOS (CMOS) • Voltages as values • Power (V DD ) = “1”, Ground = “0” • Two kinds of MOSFETs • N-transistors • Conduct when gate voltage is 1 • Good at passing 0s • P-transistors • Conduct when gate voltage is 0 • Good at passing 1s • CMOS • Complementary n-/p- networks form boolean logic (i.e., gates) • Complementary n-/p- networks form boolean logic (i....
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03_technology - CIS 501(Martin/Roth Technology 1 CIS 501...

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