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Problem 2.42 - ice on the order of tens of...

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Problem 2.42 [Difficulty: 2] Open-Ended Problem Statement: Explain how an ice skate interacts with the ice surface. What mechanism acts to reduce sliding friction between skate and ice? Discussion: The normal freezing and melting temperature of ice is 0°C (32°F) at atmospheric pressure. The melting temperature of ice decreases as pressure is increased. Therefore ice can be caused to melt at a temperature below the normal melting temperature when the ice is subjected to increased pressure. A skater is supported by relatively narrow blades with a short contact against the ice. The blade of a typical skate is less than 3 mm wide. The length of blade in contact with the ice may be just ten or so millimeters. With a 3 mm by 10 mm contact patch, a 75 kg skater is supported by a pressure between skate blade and
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Unformatted text preview: ice on the order of tens of megaPascals (hundreds of atmospheres). Such a pressure is enough to cause ice to melt rapidly. When pressure is applied to the ice surface by the skater, a thin surface layer of ice melts to become liquid water and the skate glides on this thin liquid film. Viscous friction is quite small, so the effective friction coefficient is much smaller than for sliding friction. The magnitude of the viscous drag force acting on each skate blade depends on the speed of the skater, the area of contact, and the thickness of the water layer on top of the ice. The phenomenon of static friction giving way to viscous friction is similar to the hydroplaning of a pneumatic tire caused by a layer of water on the road surface....
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