Problem *3.111 [Difficulty: 4] Open-Ended Problem Statement: Consider a conical funnel held upside down and submerged slowly in a container of water. Discuss the force needed to submerge the funnel if the spout is open to the atmosphere. Compare with the force needed to submerge the funnel when the spout opening is blocked by a rubber stopper. Discussion: Let the weight of the funnel in air be W a . Assume the funnel is held with its spout vertical and the conical section down. Then W a will also be vertical. Two possible cases are with the funnel spout open to atmosphere or with the funnel spout sealed. With the funnel spout open to atmosphere, the pressures inside and outside the funnel are equal, so no net pressure force acts on the funnel. The force needed to support the funnel will remain constant until it first contacts the water. Then a buoyancy force will act vertically upward on every element of volume located beneath the water surface. The first contact of the funnel with the water will be at the widest part of the conical section. The buoyancy
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