Tables & Formulas for Test 2

Tables & Formulas for Test 2 - Table 11.1 Number of...

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Unformatted text preview: Table 11.1 Number of Defectives (Parts per Million) for Specified Off-Centering of the Process and Quality Levels Sigma Quality Levels Off-Centering 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 0.00 1,350 233 32 L 3.4 0.29 0.019 0.25 2,980 577 88 l‘ 11 l 1.02 0.076 0.50 6,210 1,350 233 32 0.75 12,224 2,980 577 88 1.00 T 22,750 6,210 1,350 1.25 40,059 12,224 2,980 1.50 66,807 22,750 6,210 1.75 105,650 40,059 12,224 2.00 158,655 66,807 22,750 Source: Pandu R.Tadikama|la, "The Confusion over Six-Sigma Quality," Quality Progress 27, no. 11 (November 1994). Table 13.2 Summary of Control Chart Formulas Type of Chart LCL X (with R) i _ Azfi R D3§ p 5 ~ 3W 32 (with s) i — Ag s B; x )7 — 38/612 np n5 — 3m C a — 3V3 ><|| (0| ><ll ‘Ol >< | UCL APPENDIX A AREAS FOR THE STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION Entries in the table give the area under the curve between the mean and 2 standard deviations above the mean. For example, for z = 1.25 the area under the curve between the mean and z is 0.3944. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 Area or probability z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.0199 0.0239 0.0279 0.0319 0.0359 0.0398 0.0438 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 0.0596 0.0636 0.0675 0.0714 0.0753 0.0793 0.0832 0.0871 0.0910 0.0948 0.0987 0.1026 0.1064 0.1103 0.1141 0.1179 0.1217 0.1255 0.1293 0.1331 0.1368 0.1406 0.1443 0.1480 0.1517 0.1554 0.1591 0.1628 0.1664 0.1700 0.1736 0.1772 0.1808 0.1844 0.1879 0.1915 0.1950 0.1985 0.2019 0.2054 0.2088 0.2123 0.2157 0.2190 0.2224 0.2257 0.2291 0.2324 0.2357 0.2389 0.2422 0.2454 0.2486 0.2518 0.2549 0.2580 0.2612 0.2642 0.2673 0.2704 0.2734 0.2764 0.2794 0.2823 0.2852 0.2881 0.2910 0.2939 0.2967 0.2995 0.3023 0.3051 0.3078 0.3106 0.3133 0.3159 0.3186 0.3212 0.3238 0.3264 0.3289 0.3315 0.3340 0.3365 0.3389 0.3413 0.3438 0.3461 0.3485 0.3508 0.3531 0.3554 0.3577 0.3599 0.3621 0.3643 0.3665 0.3686 0.3708 0.3729 0.3749 0.3770 0.3790 0.3810 0.3830 0.3849 0.3869 0.3888 0.3907 0.3925 0.3944 0.3962 0.3980 0.3997 0.4015 0.4032 0.4049 0.4066 0.4082 0.4099 0.4115 0.4131 0.4147 0.4162 0.4177 0.4192 0.4207 0.4222 0.4236 0.4251 0.4265 0.4279 0.4292 0.4306 0.4319 0.4332 0.4345 0.4357 0.4370 0.4382 0.4394 0.4406 0.4418 0.4429 0.4441 0.4452 0.4463 0.4474 0.4484 0.4495 0.4505 0.4515 0.4525 0.4535 0.4545 0.4554 0.4564 0.4573 0.4582 0.4591 0.4599 0.4608 0.4616 0.4625 0.4633 0.4641 0.4649 0.4656 0.4664 0.4671 0.4678 0.4686 0.4693 0.4699 0.4706 0.4713 0.4719 0.4726 0.4732 0.4738 0.4744 0.4750 0.4756 0.4761 0.4767 0.4772 0.4778 0.4783 0.4788 0.4793 0.4798 0.4803 0.4808 0.4812 0.4817 0.4821 0.4826 0.4830 0.4834 0.4838 0.4842 0.4846 0.4850 0.4854 0.4857 0.4861 0.4864 0.4868 0.4871 0.4875 0.4878 0.4881 0.4884 0.4887 0.4890 0.4893 0.4896 0.4898 0.4901 0.4904 0.4906 0.4909 0.4911 0.4913 0.4916 0.4918 0.4920 0.4922 0.4925 0.4927 0.4929 0.4931 0.4932 0.4934 0.4936 0.4938 0.4940 0.4941 0.4943 0.4945 0.4946 0.4948 0.4949 0.4951 0.4952 0.4953 0.4955 0.4956 0.4957 0.4959 0.4960 0.4961 0.4962 0.4963 0.4964 0.4965 0.4966 0.4967 0.4968 0.4969 0.4970 0.4971 0.4972 0.4973 0.4974 0.4974 0.4975 0.4976 0.4977 0.4977 0.4978 0.4979 0.4979 0.4980 0.4981 0.4981 0.4982 0.4982 0.4983 0.4984 0.4984 0.4985 0.4985 0.4986 0.4986 0.4986 0.4987 0.4987 0.4988 0.4988 0.4989 0.4989 0.4989 0.4990 0.4990 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 A 2.121 1.732 1.500 1.342 1.225 1.134 1.061 1.000 ‘ 0.949 0.905 0.866 0.832 0.802 0.775 0.750 0.728 0.707 0.688 0.671 0.655 0.640 0.626 0.612 0.600 APPENDIX B x-charts A2 A3 1.880 2.659 1.023 1.954 0.729 1.628 0.577 1.427 0.483 1.287 0.419 1.182 0.373 1.099 0.337 1.032 0.308 0.975 0.285 0.927 0.266 0.886 0.249 0.850 0.235 0.817 0.223 0.789 0.212 0.763 0.203 0.739 0.194 0.718 0.187 0.698 0.180 0.680 0.173 0.663 0.167 0.647 0.162 0.633 0.157 0.619 0.153 0.606 FACTORS FOR CONTROL CHARTS c4 0.7979 0.8862 0.9213 0.9400 0.9515 0.9594 0.9650 0.969 0.9727 0.9754 0.9776 0.9794 0.9810 0.9823 0.9835 0.9845 0.9854 0.9862 0.9869 0.9876 0.9882 0.9887 0.9892 0.9896 OOOO 0.030 0.118 0.185 0.239 0.284 0.321 0.354 0.382 0.406 0.428 0.448 0.466 0.482 0.497 0.510 0.523 0.534 0.545 0.555 0.565 3.267 2.568 2.266 2.089 1.970 1.882 1.815 1.761 1.716 1.679 1.646 1.618 1.594 1.572 1.552 1.534 1.518 1.503 1.490 1.477 1.466 1.455 1.445 1.435 0000 0.029 0.113 0.179 0.232 0.276 0.313 0.346 0.374 0.399 0.421 0.440 0.458 0.475 0.490 0.504 0.516 0.528 0.539 0.549 0.559 2.606 2.276 2.088 1.964 1.874 1.806 1.751 1.707 1.669 1.637 1.610 1.585 1.563 1.544 1.526 1.511 1.496 1.483 1.470 1.459 1.448 1.438 1.429 1.420 1.128 1.693 2.059 2.326 2.534 2.704 2.847 2.970 3.078 3.173 3.258 3.336 3.407 3.472 3.532 3.588 3.640 3.689 3.735 3.778 3.819 3.858 3.895 3.931 d3 0.853 0.888 0.880 0.864 0.848 0.833 0.820 1 0.808 0.797 0.787 0.778 0.770 0.763 0.756 0.750 0.744 0.739 0.734 0.729 0.724 0.720 0.716 0.712 0.708 R—charts D1 D2 0 3.686 0 4.358 0 4.698 0 4.918 0 5.078 0.204 5.204 0.388 5.306 0.547 5.393 0.687 5.469 0.811 5.535 0.922 5.594 1.025 5.647 1.118 5.696 1.203 5.741 1.282 5.782 1.356 5.820 1.424 5.856 1.487 5.891 1.549 5.921 1.605 5.951 1.659 5.979 1.710 6.006 1.759 6.031 1.806 6.056 D 0000 0 0.076 0.136 0.184 0.223 0.256 0.283 0.307 0.328 0.347 0.363 0.378 0.391 0.403 0.415 0.425 0.434 0.443 0.451 0.459 D 4 3.267 2.574 2.282 2.114 2.004 1.924 1.864 1.816 1.777 1.744 1.717 1.693 1.672 1.653 1.637 1.622 1.608 1.597 1.585 1.575 1.566 1.557 1.548 1.541 Source: Adapted from Table 27 of ASTM STP 15D ASTM Manual on Presentation of Data and Control Chart Analysis. © 1976 American Society forTesting and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. ...
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