Study Guide/Cheat sheet - Chapter 9 A Managers Guide to...

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Chapter 9: “A Manager’s Guide to Networking and Telecommunications” Terms: Analog vs. Digital signal: DIGITAL: Started with computers use. (binary system of 1 and 0), packet switching, CAS of Internet, multiplexing saves money, now radio, TV, film are all digitized ANALOG: telephones (waves). Circuit switching provides dedicated point-to-point connections, pay for connection if used or not, quality connection Bandwidth: network transmission speeds, typically expressed in some form of bits per second (bps) Colocation facilities (colos): is a type of web hosting where the customer's server equipment is hosted in the web hosting provider's data center. Typically, the web hosting provider is responsible for providing power and connectivity, the customer is responsible for all work on the server and all of the data on the server. Used to REDUCE LATENCY (which is very bad if, say, you trade stocks). Cybersquatting: acquiring a domain name that refers to a firm, individual, product, or trademark, with the goal of exploiting it for financial gain. The practice is illegal in many nations, and ICANN has a dispute resolution mechanism that in some circumstances can strip cyber squatters of registered domains. Domain name service (DNS): Internet directory service that allows devices and services to be named and discoverable. The DNS, for example, helps your browser locate the appropriate computers when entering an address like http://finance.google.com. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): Distributes temporary IP address to computers. Encryption: Encryption is the process of converting data (plaintext) into something that appears to be random and meaningless (ciphertext), which is difficult to decode without a secret key. Encryption is used to provide message confidentiality. Fault tolerance: The ability of a system to continue operation even if a component fails. Hypertext markup language (HTML): language used to compose Web pages. Internet Corporation for Assigning Names and Numbers (ICANN): Nonprofit organization responsible for managing the Internet’s domain and numbering systems. Internet Protocol (IP) address : A value used to identify a device that is connected to the Internet. IP addresses are usually expressed as four numbers (from 0-255), separated by periods. Internet service provider (ISP): An organization or firm that provides access to the Internet Latency: The minimum time a network needs to send the smallest possible amount of data. Latency depends on things like line speed and the receive and retransmit delay in routers and modems. A low latency indicates a high network efficiency. Load balancing: Distributing a computing or networking workload across multiple systems to avoid
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congestion and slow performance. Local area network (LAN): a computer network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area; typically has a higher data-transfer rate Lossless format: a format which allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data Lossy format:
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