lecture 2 - Organic Lecture Series CH 310/318 M LECTURE 2...

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Organic Lecture Series 1 CH 310/318 M LECTURE 2 Textbook Assignment: Chapter 1 Today’s Topics: Covalent Bonds & Molecular Shapes Covalent Bonds & Molecular Shapes Notice & Announcements: 1) T 1) Text Problems posted to WEB (optional) 2) +/- system for letter grades will NOT be used this semester. Organic Lecture Series 2 Covalent Bonds & Covalent Bonds & Shapes of Shapes of Molecules Molecules Chapter 1 Chapter 1
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Organic Lecture Series 3 Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry • The study of the compounds of carbon. • Over 10 million compounds have been identified. – About 1000 new ones are identified each day! • C is a small atom. – It forms single, double and triple bonds. – It is intermediate in electronegativity (2.5). – It forms strong bonds with C, H, O, N, and some metals. Organic Lecture Series 4 • Energy Energy -level diagram level diagram; A pictorial designation of where electrons are placed in an electron configuration. For example, the energy-level diagram for the ground- state electron configuration of carbon is 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 2 . For chlorine: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 5 . Electron Configuration of Atoms Electron Configuration of Atoms
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Organic Lecture Series 5 1 s 2 s 2 p Energy-level diagram for chlorine (atomic number 17) Energy 3s 3 p 1 s 2 s 2 p Energy-level diagram for carbon (atomic number 6) Organic Lecture Series 6 • In the ground state of carbon , electrons are placed in accordance with the quantum chemistry principles (aufbau, Hund’s rule, Pauli exclusion principle, etc.) that dictate the lowest energy form of carbon. • If we place the electrons in a different manner (as for example with one electron in the 2 s and three electrons in the 2 p ) we would have a higher energy level referred to as an excited state. When the electrons are rearranged back to the ground state, energy is released. The Concept of Energy The Concept of Energy
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Organic Lecture Series Lewis Dot Structures Lewis Dot Structures Gilbert N. Lewis---- Valence shell: Valence shell: – The outermost occupied electron shell of an atom. Valence electrons: Valence electrons: – Electrons in the valence shell of an atom; these electrons are used to form chemical bonds and in chemical reactions. Lewis dot structure: Lewis dot structure: – The symbol of an element represents the nucleus and all inner shell electrons. – Dots represent electrons in the valence shell of the atom. Organic Lecture Series • Atoms interact in such a way that each participating atom acquires an electron configuration that is the same as that of the noble gas nearest it in atomic number. – An atom that gains electrons becomes an anion anion . – An atom that loses electrons becomes a cation cation . – The attraction of anions and cations leads to the formation of ionic solids ionic solids .
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2011 for the course CH 310 M taught by Professor Iverson during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas.

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lecture 2 - Organic Lecture Series CH 310/318 M LECTURE 2...

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