lecture 4 - Organic Lecture Series CH 310/318 M LECTURE 4...

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Organic Lecture Series 1 CH 310/318 M LECTURE 4 Textbook Assignment: Chapter 2 Today’s Topics: Alkanes; classification; nomenclature Alkanes; classification; nomenclature Notice & Announcements: Problem Set 1 posted- Due: 9/12; 3 PM Organic Lecture Series 2 Alkanes and Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Cycloalkanes Chapter 2 Chapter 2
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Organic Lecture Series 3 Structure Structure Hydrocarbon: A compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen. Saturated hydrocarbon: Saturated hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon containing only single bonds. Alkane: Alkane: A saturated hydrocarbon whose carbons are arranged in an open chain. Aliphatic hydrocarbon: Another name for an alkane. Organic Lecture Series 4 Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons H-C C-H H-C-C-H H H H H H CC H HH Hydrocarbons Alkanes (Chapter 2) Alkenes (Chapters 5-6) Alkynes (Chapter 7) Arenes (Chapter 21-22) Only carbon- carbon single bonds One or more carbon-carbon double bonds One or more carbon-carbon triple bonds One or more benzenelike rings Class Example Carbon- carbon bonding Name Ethane Ethene (Ethylene) Ethyne (Acetylene Benzene Saturated Unsaturated Where we are headed: Where we are headed:
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Organic Lecture Series 5 • Shape – tetrahedral about carbon – all bond angles are approximately 109.5 ° 109.5° Structure Structure methane methane Organic Lecture Series 6 Drawing Alkanes Drawing Alkanes • Line-angle formulas: – an abbreviated way to draw structural formulas. – each vertex and line ending represents a carbon. CH 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 Pentane Butane Propane Structural formula Line-angle Ball-and- stick model
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Organic Lecture Series 7 • Constitutional isomers: Constitutional isomers: Compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atoms. – example: C 4 H 10 CH 3 2 2 3 Butane (bp -0.5°C) 3 3 CHCH 3 2-Methylpropane (bp -11.6°C) Constitutional Isomers Constitutional Isomers Organic Lecture Series 8 •S u f f i x - ane ane specifies an alk ane ane, e.g. ethane. • Prefix tells the number of carbon atoms. undec- dodec- tetradec- pentadec- hexadec- heptadec- nonadec- eicos- tridec- 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 octadec- 18 19 20 Prefix meth- eth- prop- but- pent- hex- oct- non- dec- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 hept- 8 9 10 Number of carbons Prefix Number of carbons Nomenclature IUPAC Nomenclature IUPAC Commit to Commit to Memory Memory
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Organic Lecture Series 9 • Parent name: Parent name: The longest carbon chain. • Substituent: Substituent: A group bonded to the parent chain. – Alkyl group Alkyl group : A substituent derived by removal of a hydrogen from an alkane; given the symbol R-. Alkane Alkyl group CH 4 Name Name Methane 3 - Methyl group 3 3 Ethane 3 2 - Ethyl group Nomenclature IUPAC Organic Lecture Series 10 1.The name of a saturated hydrocarbon with an unbranched chain consists of a prefix and suffix.
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2011 for the course CH 310 M taught by Professor Iverson during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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lecture 4 - Organic Lecture Series CH 310/318 M LECTURE 4...

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