lec 9 - Organic Lecture Series CH 310/318 M LECTURE 9...

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Organic Lecture Series 1 CH 310/318 M LECTURE 9 Textbook Assignment: Chapter 5-Alkenes Today’s Topics: Acids & Bases Acids & Bases - Notice & Announcements: Exam1: Grading in progress (No HW this week) Organic Lecture Series 2 Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Chapter 4 Chapter 4
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Organic Lecture Series pK pK a HI I - HBr Br - HCl Cl - H 2 SO 4 HSO 4 - H 2 O H 3 O + H 3 PO 4 H 2 4 - C 6 H 5 COOH C 6 H 5 COO - CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - H 2 S HS - NH 3 4 + C 6 H 5 OH C 6 H 5 O - HCO 3 - CO 3 2- CH 3 2 CH 3 3 + H 2 O HO - CH 3 CH 2 OH CH 3 CH 2 O - HC CH HC C - H 2 H - 3 2 - CH 2 =CH 2 CH 2 - CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 - Acid Formula p K a Conju gate Base Ethan e Ammonia Ethan ol Water Bicarbonate ion Phenol Ammonium ion Carbonic acid Acetic acid 35 25 Benzoic acid Phosphoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen iodide 51 38 10.33 15.7 15.9 4.76 6.36 9.24 9.95 -5.2 -7 -9 -8 4.19 2.1 -1.74 Hydronium ion Stronger conju gate base Weaker conjugate acid Methylammonium ion 10.64 Hydrogen sulfide 7.04 Acetylene Hydrogen Ethy lene 44 Organic Lecture Series 4 Acid -Base Equilibria Base Equilibria • Equilibrium favors reaction of the stronger acid and stronger base to give the weaker acid and weaker base. CH 3 COOH 3 CH 3 - 4 + ++ Ammonia (stronger base ) Acetate ion (weaker base) Acetic acid p K a 4.76 (stronger acid) Ammonium ion p K a 9.24 (weaker acid) Favors the side with the highest pKa (i.e weaker acid)
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Organic Lecture Series 5 • Consider the reaction between acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate. ± write the equilibrium as a net ionic equation. ± omit Na + because it does not undergo any chemical change in the reaction. ± Equilibrium lies to the right. ± Carbonic acid forms, which then decomposes to carbon dioxide and water. CH 3 COH O HCO 3 - 3 CO - O H 2 3 Bicarbonate ion Acetate ion Acetic acid p K a 4.76 (stronger acid) Carbonic acid p K a 6.36 (weaker acid) + + Acid Acid -Base Equilibria Base Equilibria Organic Lecture Series 6 Thermochemistry & Mechanisms Thermochemistry & Mechanisms Reaction mechanism: A step-by-step description of how a chemical reaction occurs. Thermochemistry: The study of the energy of an entire system at each and every instant of a reaction. Reaction coordinate diagram: A graph showing the energy changes that occur during a chemical reaction. Energy is plotted on the vertical axis and reaction progress (time) is plotted along the horizontal axis.
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Organic Lecture Series 7 –During a collision process that yields a reaction, a transition state (
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lec 9 - Organic Lecture Series CH 310/318 M LECTURE 9...

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