exam 1 review - Meiosis Key Concepts 1. Heredity is the...

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Meiosis Key Concepts 1. Heredity is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next 2. Clone- a group of genetically identical individuals produced by asexual reproduction 3. The fusion of gametes called fertilization or syngame 4. Meiosis is the basis of sexual reproduction 5. Sexual reproduction dominates the life cycle of nearly all animals a. Many different variations that increases the offspring survival 6. Crossing over, random segregation, and random fertilization contributes to variation in traits among offspring a. Affects what you are immune to or not for diseases Heredity: Asexual Reproduction o Is from cloning or mitosis only o Example sponge or jellyfish, earthworm, hydra, yeast, prokaryotes o Clone: a group of genetically identical individuals produced asexually Sexual reproduction o Example: humans, insects, mammals, reptile, animals, plants Meiosis Eukaryotes In sexual cells to produce gametes – chromosome 23 Sperm fertilizes egg making zygote(2n) Happens in ovaries and testis Phases
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o Meiosis I TWO DIVISIONS Interphase: DNA replication (ONCE) Prophase: chromosomes condense, homologous chromosomes ( synapsis) form tetrads ( mother and father) Crossing over, chiasmata) occurs between one of mother and one of fathers chromosomes, can happen at multiple sites (double crossing over) Metaphase: line up in middle randomly Anaphase: random segregation, tetrad separate, sister chromatids are attached, NOT PURE Telophase:: cleavage furrow o Meiosis II Anaphase: Sister chromatids separate NOT Identical to Parental cells 4 Haploid cells made Mitosis Eukaryotes In somatic cells 1-22 chromosome ONE DIVISION Two Identical daughter cells made (2n) Conclusions A parent cell provides each daughter cell with hereditary instructions Eukaryotes divide by mitosis or meiosis and prokaryotes divide by binary fission Each chromosome is one DNA molecule with proteins attached Cells with a diploid number (2n) contain two of each kinds of chromosome. Genetics Key Concepts: 1. Genes are units of information about inherited Traits 2. Each gene has a particular location on a particular chromosome blood type is on chromosome 9 3. During meiosis, paired genes ( moms chromosome 9 and dads) are moved apart both genes can NOT go to one child, blue eyes go to one kid and brown eyes goes to other 4. Gregory Mendel found evidence for gene segregation 5.Homologous chromosomes are independently distributed and assorted during meiosis many different pathways and combination 6.Not all traits are clearly dominant or recessive but can be partially dominant or codominant Which genes are being expressed and which are not
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Mendel’s Laws Punnett square – way to predict genotypes and phenotypes (Probability) Types of gametes that can be produced is 2 x Pea plants o Small, easy inexpensive, short generation time, hand crossed Monohybrid Cross
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2011 for the course BIO 311 D taught by Professor Zhao during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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exam 1 review - Meiosis Key Concepts 1. Heredity is the...

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