Must-Know-Topics-from-AP-Biology-Outline2011 - Must Know...

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1 Must Know Topics from AP Biology Outline By Robert Dennison The following annotated outline is meant to serve as a guide to the specific content that most often appears on the AP Biology Exam (from within the very broad course description provided by the College Board). I created the outline by surveying past exams and by using my own experiences teaching AP Biology for 32 years. While other concepts may appear on any particular exam, my experience is that if students know all of the material below they will be successful on their exam. I. Molecules and Cells A. Chemistry of Life: Water: it is polar! hydrogen bonds give it all of those great properties that you need to know; be sure you can you list those properties and explain them in terms of the structure of water molecules; i.e. they are polar and form H bonds, etc. also know how H+ bonds are formed; Dehydration synthesis: water is always formed when bonding monomers together into polymers; Hydrolysis: breakdown by adding water. Basic chemistry terms, etc. to know: Exergonic, endergonic, Carbon atoms have 4 unpaired electrons (make 4 covalent bonds), O atoms have high electronegativity (so if you see an Oxygen atom bonded to something else, that bond is polar!) Macromolecules: 1. Carbohydrates : made of CH 2 O; water soluble; functions: energy storage (starch, glycogen, glucose); structural – cellulose! Know that glucose and all other monosaccharides always have a molecular formula = C 6 H 12 O 6 Sucrose and all disaccharides are always C 12 H 22 O 11 (Why isn’t it simply 2 times glucose? Dehydration synthesis!) 2. Lipids : C, H >> O; not water soluble because they have many C-H bonds and C-C bonds both of which are nonpolar; important to know that the small portion of the molecule with the O atoms is polar, such as the carboxyl groups on the end of the fatty acid chains with the result that most lipids have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions; functions: energy storage; membrane structure (phospholipids form barrier portion of membrane; hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions are especially important here –be able to explain why); others to know: neutral fats (triglycerides) and steroids (recognize their structure of 4 rings). 3. Proteins : ( always emphasized on the test! ) contain C, H, O, N (sometimes S); monomers are amino acids; levels of protein structure : primary = order of amino acids; secondary = basic repeating shape such as alpha helix and pleated sheet; held in these shapes by hydrogen bonds between “backbone” of the polypeptide; tertiary = overall shape with various folds of the secondary structure; held in this shape by – hydrogen bonds between polar amino acids AND hydrophobic interactions due to some amino acids being nonpolar AND van der Waals interactions between nonpolar amino acids AND disulfide bridges between amino acids with Sulfur groups; quaternary = two or more polypeptides held together into one protein; example: hemoglobin has four chains of amino acids. Denaturing =? (changing the “natural” shape of a protein with heat, pH, etc. resulting in a loss of
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2011 for the course UNIV 1010 taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '11 term at Acadia.

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Must-Know-Topics-from-AP-Biology-Outline2011 - Must Know...

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